A&P CH 5 HW Questions

question

TRUE/FALSE The dermis contains blood vessels and nerve fibers while the epidermis does not.
answer

T
question

Water loss through the epidermis could cause a serious threat to health and well-being. Which of the protects us against excessive water loss through the skin?
answer

Glycolipids that are secreted by keratinocytes into extracellular spaces.
question

The papillary layer of the skin is primarily composed of:
answer

areolar connective tissue -The loose connective tissue within the papillary layer of the dermis is rich in blood vessels and cells that function in the body’s defenses.
question

A Caucasian patient with pale skin is treated for low blood pressure with medication that elevates the blood pressure; however, the skin’s pallor does not change. What is the most likely cause of the pallor in this patient?
answer

Anemia -Red blood cells (RBCs) help give blood its color. Anemia is a set of signs and symptoms that appear when a person does not have enough healthy RBCs. Pallor, or paleness, is a sign/symptom of anemia because the blood vessels in the dermal layer lack normal RBCs.
question

TRUE/FALSE The dense fibrous connective tissue portion of the skin is located in the reticular region of the dermis.
answer

TRUE
question

The function of the root hair plexus is to ________.
answer

allow the hair to assist in touch sensation
question

Changes in the color of skin are often an indication of a homeostatic imbalance. Which of the following changes would suggest that a patient is suffering from Addison’s disease?
answer

The skin takes on a bronze or metallic appearance.
question

TRUE/FALSE The protein found in large amounts in the outermost layer of epidermal cells is collagen.
answer

F
question

TRUE/FALSE Regardless of race, all human beings have about the same number of melanocytes.
answer

T
question

The dermis has two major layers. Which layer constitutes 80% of the dermis and is responsible for the tension lines in the skin?
answer

Reticular layer
question

Which of the following best explains the fact that eyebrows do NOT grow as long as the hair on the head?
answer

The hair follicles of the eyebrows are active for only a few months before becoming inactive; the hair follicles in the scalp are active for years before becoming inactive. -The hair follicles in the scalp remain active for up to ten years, while those of the eyebrow are only active for up to four months before becoming inactive.
question

Pigment can be found in several layers of the epidermis. In which layers would you expect to find the cells that produce melanin?
answer

stratum basale -Between 10 and 25% of the cells in the stratum basale are melanocytes that produce the melanin.
question

Melanocytes and keratinocytes work together in protecting the skin from UV damage when keratinocytes ________.
answer

accumulate the melanin granules on their superficial portion, forming a UV-blocking pigment layer
question

Which of the following would NOT be a correct characteristic of melanoma? color that is dark black or brown asymmetry diameter of 12 mm border regularity
answer

border regularity Border irregularity would be a sign of melanoma, especially if you were to see rough or notched edges.
question

A surgeon opens her patient by cutting the integument parallel to the cleavage lines of the dermis (tension lines). This will result in ________.
answer

faster healing of the skin and less scarring
question

The epidermis consists of five layers of cells, each layer with a distinct role to play in the health, well-being, and functioning of the skin. Which of the following layers is responsible for cell division and replacement?
answer

stratum basale
question

The 68-year-old patient was admitted to the hospital medical floor with a diagnosis of chronic bronchitis. His wife asks the nurse why his skin looks blue. How would you explain cyanosis to this patient and his wife?
answer

Cyanosis is a dusky bluish or grayish discoloration of the skin and mucous membranes that occurs with reduced oxygen levels.
question

TRUE/FALSE Keratin protects skin cell DNA from the damaging effects of ultraviolet (UV) radiation. Is this statement true or false?
answer

F keratin helps to provide a water barrier for the integument
question

most abundant cells of the epidermis
answer

keratinocytes
question

keratin
answer

the protein found in the epidermis that is responsible for toughening the skin
question

cells plus a disc-like sensory nerve ending that functions as a sensory receptor for touch
answer

Merkel disk
question

skin macrophages that help activate the immune system
answer

dendritic cells
question

cell remnants of the stratum corneum
answer

cornified keratinocytes
question

In general, skin cancer is least likely to develop in which of the following locations?
answer

scalp The skin of scalp has hair, which gives it added protection from the damaging ultraviolet rays of the sun.
question

The source of the fluid that accumulates in a blister is________.
answer

the plasma of the blood flowing through the numerous dermal blood vessels -The epidermis is avascular but highly innervated; the underlying dermis lacks the number of nerve endings but is rich in blood vessels.
question

Eyebrow hairs are always shorter than hairs on your head because ________.
answer

eyebrow follicles are only active for a few months
question

Which of the following is NOT a layer of the epidermis? basal layer stratum corneum reticular layer stratum granulosum
answer

reticular layer -There isn’t a stratum reticulum. The epidermis of thick skin consists of 5 layers. From deep to superficial, these layers are stratum basale, stratum spinosum, stratum granulosum, stratum lucidum, and stratum corneum. (Study tip: Try the mnemonic BSGLC–Betty’s Skin Glows Like Candles.) Thin skin lacks the stratum lucidum; thus, it consists of only the four major layers.
question

Which of the following statements indicates the way in which the body’s natural defenses protect the skin from the effects of UV damage?
answer

Prolonged exposure to the sun induces melanin dispersion, which in turn acts as a natural sunscreen.
question

The papillary layer of the dermis is composed of loosely packed connective tissue with numerous peg-like projections that provide a great deal of surface area connecting the dermis to the epidermis. Which of the statements below do not represent benefits provided by the papillary layer’s anatomy? -The high surface area allows for a stronger connection of dermis to epidermis. -The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed. -The spaces in the connective tissue allow many small blood vessels to deliver nutrients and pickup waste diffusing from the superficial epidermal layers. -The looseness allows for phagocytes to roam through the tissue and search for infection.
answer

The looseness allows for easy separation of the dead cell layer of epidermis to be shed
question

Which of the following is NOT an immediate threat to the system as a result of burns? renal failure electrolyte imbalance bacterial infection dehydration
answer

bacterial infection While it is true that infection is a long term threat, the fluid balance must be restored first in order to stabilize the burn trauma.
question

Which of the following is a metabolic function of skin? body temperature regulation synthesis of a vitamin D precursor elimination of nitrogenous wastes cutaneous sensation
answer

synthesis of a vitamin D precursor -Yes, this is a function of the skin carried out by chemical reactions in the skin. When sunlight bombards the skin, modified cholesterol molecules are converted to a vitamin D precursor (called cholecalciferol), which is transported via the blood to the liver and kidneys, where it is converted into a hormone called calcitriol, or active vitamin D
question

The major regions of a hair shaft include all of the following except ________.
answer

external root sheath
question

A needle would pierce the epidermal layers of the forearm in which order?
answer

corneum, granulosum, spinosum, basale
question

What is the first threat to life from a massive third-degree burn?
answer

catastrophic fluid loss
question

The single most important risk for skin cancer is ________
answer

overexposure to UV radiation
question

What is the most common cell type in the epidermis?
answer

keratinocytes -Keratinocytes are the primary cells that form the stratified layers of the epidermis.
question

Which layer of skin is LEAST protected by melanin?
answer

stratum corneum
question

Which skin pigment is made in the skin as a natural defense against UV radiation?
answer

melanin -Melanin is the only one of the three pigments (melanin, carotene, and hemoglobin) that contribute to skin color that is actually produced in the skin itself.
question

TRUE/FALSE Joe just burned himself on a hot pot. and the burn is quite painful. Joe’s burn would best be described as a third-degree burn.
answer

F
question

Which of the following would be a sign of a melanoma? uniform coloration regular borders asymmetry a size smaller than 6 mm
answer

ASYMMETRY Cancerous growths exhibit asymmetry. Benign growths exhibit symmetry, regular borders, uniform coloration, and they are usually less than 6 mm in diameter.
question

A splinter penetrated into the skin of the sole of the foot.almost to the papillary region of the dermis. Which layer of the epidermis would be the final layer injured?
answer

basale
question

The skin is NOT a __________ barrier.
answer

metabolic -The skin constitutes at least three types of barriers, but it is not a metabolic barrier.
question

In people with lighter skin, respiratory failure can lead to a change in the color of the skin. Which pigmentation factor is affecting this change?
answer

hemoglobin -As the blood becomes hypoxic, hemoglobin is carrying less oxygen. This deoxygenated state leads to the condition known as cyanosis.
question

Which type of cell is NOT found in the epidermis?
answer

pain receptors pain receptors are found deeper in the papillary layer of the dermis
question

TRUE/FALSE The skin cancer most likely to metastasize is cancer of the melanocytes.
answer

T
question

A patient has skin that is slightly blue in color. A likely treatment for this person might be ________.
answer

giving the patient supplemental oxygen by mask
question

Which of the following statements is INCORRECT? -Langerhans cells activate the immune system. -Keratinocytes produce a fibrous protein to protect the epidermis. -Tactile cells anchor the skin to the body. -Melanin provides protection against ultraviolet (UV) radiation.
answer

Tactile cells anchor the skin to the body. -Tactile cells, in conjunction with their sensory nerve endings, function as touch receptors. The hypodermis, not tactile cells, anchors skin to the body.
question

The reason the hypodermis acts as a shock absorber is that ________.
answer

the major part of its makeup is adipose, which serves as an effective shock absorber
question

Select the most correct statement concerning skin cancer. –Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing. –Squamous cell carcinomas arise from the stratum corneum. –Basal cell carcinomas are the least common but most malignant. –Most tumors that arise on the skin are malignant.
answer

Melanomas are rare but must be removed quickly to prevent them from metastasizing.
question

The Waldorf family was caught in a fire but escaped. Unfortunately, the father and daughter suffered burns. The father had second-degree burns on his chest, abdomen, and both arms, and third-degree burns on his entire left lower extremity. The daughter suffered first-degree burns on her head and neck and second-degree burns on both lower extremities. What percentage of the daughter’s body received first-degree burns? What part of the daughter’s body has burns to both the dermis and epidermis?
answer

9%; the legs
question

Burns are devastating and debilitating because of loss of fluids and electrolytes from the body. How do physicians estimate the extent of burn damage associated with such dangerous fluid loss?
answer

by using the “rule of nines”
question

A dendritic or Langerhans cell is a specialized ________.
answer

phagocytic cell
question

Sudoriferous (sweat) glands are categorized as two distinct types. Which of the following are the two types of sweat glands?
answer

eccrine and apocrine
question

TRUE/FALSE The reason that the nail bed appears pink is the presence of a large number of melanocytes in the underlying dermis.
answer

F
question

TRUE/FALSE The biggest risk factor for the development of skin cancer is excessive exposure to ultraviolet radiation from sunlight. Exposure to UV light in a tanning booth is safer. Is this statement true or false?
answer

F -The single most important risk factor for skin cancer is overexposure to the UV radiation in sunlight. UV radiation damages DNA bases and appears to disable tumor suppressor genes, leading to the formation of cancerous cells. There is no such thing as a “healthy tan.” Tanning booths use the same UV mechanism to stimulate melanin production; the UV exposure is the primary mechanism that leads to skin cancer.
question

TRUE/FALSE Thick skin has a more extensive dermal layer than thin skin.
answer

F
question

Despite its apparent durability, the dermis is subject to tearing. How might a person know that the dermis has been stretched and/or torn?
answer

The appearance of visible, silvery-white scars is an indication of stretching of the dermis.
question

Which layer is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?
Which layer is composed primarily of dense irregular connective tissue?
answer

C Layer C consists primarily of dense, interwoven fibers of collagen designed to resist tearing from any direction.
question

TRUE/FALSE Cells in the stratum corneum undergo mitosis to keep the layer thick and protective.
answer

F

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member