AP Biology Evolution Study Guide

question

Jean Baptist de Lamarck
answer

A biologist who believed in the inheritance of aquired characteristics
question

Inheritance of acquired characteristics
answer

Characteristics acquired during an organism’s lifetime will be passed on to their children
question

Charles Darwin
answer

A British biologist who popularized the theory of evolution through natural selection and descent with modification
question

Natural Selection
answer

The differential reproduction of genotypes; caused by factors in the environment; leads to evolutionary change
question

Survival of the Fittest
answer

The concept that the organisms best suited to live in their environment will survive
question

Variation
answer

Minute differences in individuals of the same species
question

Evidence for Evolution: Geologic
answer

Fossils/fossil record, paleontology, biogeography
question

Evidence for Evolution: Developmental
answer

Homologous and analogous structures, vestigial structures
question

Evidence for Evolution: Biochemical
answer

Embryology, biochemistry, DNA, artificial selection
question

Species/Speciation
answer

A kind of organism/when one species diverges enough genetically or geographically to create two separate species
question

Sympatric Speciation
answer

The differentiation of populations within a common geographic area into separate species
question

Allopatric Speciation
answer

The differentiation of geographically isolated populations into distinct species
question

Gene Pool
answer

All the alleles present in a species
question

Allelic Frequency
answer

A measure of the occurrence of an allele in a population, expressed as a proportion of the entire population (see genotype frequencies)
question

Genetic Equilibrium
answer

The condition of an allele or genotype in a gene pool in which the frequency does not change from generation to generation
question

Genotype Frequencies
answer

A measure of the occurrence of a genotype in a population expressed as a proportion of the entire population (see allele/allelic frequency)
question

Genetic Drift
answer

Random fluctuation in allele frequencies over time by chance
question

Mutation Pressure
answer

The change in allele frequencies due to the repeated occurrence of the same mutations (not as powerful as genetic drift in the grand scheme of evolution)
question

Gene Flow
answer

The transfer of alleles from one population to another
question

Bottleneck Effect
answer

A loss of genetic variability that occurs when a population is reduced drastically in size (usually due to a natural disaster)
question

Founder Effect
answer

The effect by which rare alleles and combinations of alleles may be enhanced in new populations
question

Selection Pressure
answer

An agent of differential mortality or fertility that tends to make a population change genetically
question

Heterozygote Advantage
answer

The situation in which individuals heterzygous for a trait have a selective advantage of the those who are homozygous; an example is sickle cell anemia
question

Directional Selection
answer

A form of selection in which selection acts to eliminate rather than favor the intermediate type (a graph moves either to the right or left – favoring one trait over the other)
question

Disruptive Selection
answer

A form of selection in which selection acts to eliminate rather than favor the intermediate type (a graph is split in the middle – favoring the extremes of a trait, sometimes leading to speciation)
question

Stabilizing Selection
answer

A form of selection in which selection acts to eliminate both extremes from a range of phenotypes
question

Adaptation
answer

A peculiarity of structure, physiology, or behavior that promotes the likelihood of an organism’s survival and reproduction in a particular environment
question

Fitness
answer

The genetic contribution of an individual to succeeding generations. Relative fitness refers to the fitness of an individual relative to other individuals in a population
question

Sexual Selection
answer

A type of differential reproduction that results from variable success in obtaining mates
question

Polymorphism
answer

The presence in a population of more than one allele of a gene at a frequency greater than that of newly arising adaptations
question

Microevolution
answer

Refers to the evolutionary process itself. Evolution within a species (see adaptation)
question

Macroevolution
answer

The creation of new species and the extinction of old ones
question

Phylogeny
answer

The evolutionary history of an organism
question

Prezygotic Isolation Mechanisms
answer

A type of reproductive isolation in which the formation of a zygote is prevented; these mechanisms may range from physical separation in different habitats to gametic in which gametes are incapable of fusing
question

Postzygotic Isolation Mechanisms
answer

A type of reproductive isolation in which zygotes are produced but are unable to develop into reproducing adults (ranging from inviable zygotes or embryos to adults that are sterile)
question

Geographic Isolation
answer

Species do not occur in the same area; populations can be separated by natural barriers such as mountains or manmade ones like roads
question

Ecological Isolation
answer

Species occur in the same area, but they occupy different habitats and rarely encounter each other
question

Temporal Isolation
answer

Species reproduce in different seasons or at different times of the day
question

Behavioral Isolation
answer

Species differ in their mating rituals
question

Mechanical Isolation
answer

Structural differences between species prevent mating
question

Gametic Isolation
answer

Gametes of one species function poorly with the gametes of another species or within the reproductive tract of another species
question

Developmental Isolation
answer

Mating and fertilization are successful, but the embryo doesn’t develop properly
question

Hybrid Inviability/Sterility
answer

Hybrids may be vigorous, but they are sterile or produce inviable offspring
question

Evolutionary Bottleneck
answer

An event that drastically reduces the size of a population, possibly eliminating certain traits (see bottleneck effect)
question

Gradualism
answer

The view that species change very slowly in ways that may be imperceptible from one generation to the next but that accumulate and lead to major changes over thousands or millions of years (in contrast to Punctuated Equilibrium)
question

Radioactive Dating
answer

A process for determining the age of an object by measuring an amount of given radioactive material it contains
question

Convergent Evolution
answer

The independent development of similar structures in organisms that are not directly related; often found in organisms in similar environments (ex. birds and bats developing wings)
question

Charles Lyell
answer

Wrote the book Principle of Geology that influenced Darwin’s conclusion that living species had arose from ancestral species
question

Alfred Russel Wallace
answer

A British naturalist who developed ideas similar to Darwin’s on the topic of evolution
question

Punctuated Equilibrium
answer

A hypothesis about the mechanism of evolutionary change proposing that long periods of little or no change are punctuated by periods of rapid evolution

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member