AP Bio – Midterm Study Guide

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Natural Selection
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Process by which individuals that are better suited to their environment survive and reproduce most successfully; also called survival of the fittest
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Lyell
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Considered the ‘father of uniformitarianism’ – belief that the earth was old, and catastrophism happened slowly
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Population Genetics
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The study of genetic changes in populations; the science of microevolutionary changes in populations.
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Sexual Recombination
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New organisms are created from a relatively small number of alleles, result of sexual reproduction
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Cline
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Americn geneticist who succeeded in transferring a functioning gene from one mouse to another (born in 1934)
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Reproductive Isolation
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Separation of species or populations so that they cannot interbreed and produce fertile offspring
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Taxonomy
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Practice of classifying plants and animals according to their presumed natural relationships
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Artificial Selection
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Selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms
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Modern Synthesis
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A comprehensive theory of evolution that incorporates genetics and includes most of Darwin’s ideas, focusing on populations as the fundamental units of evolution.
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Genetic Drift
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The gradual changes in gene frequencies in a population due to random events
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Fitness
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Ability of an organism to survive and reproduce in its environment
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Prezygotic Barriers
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A reproductive barrier that impedes mating between species or hinders fertilization if interspecific mating is attempted
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Fossils
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The perserved trace, imprint, or remains of a plant or animal
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Binomial Nomenclature
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Classification system in which each species is assigned a two-part scientific name
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Population
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the act of populating (causing to live in a place)
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Bottleneck Effect
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Genetic drift resulting from the reduction of a population, typically by a natural disaster, such that the surviving population is no longer genetically representative of the original population.
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Directional Selection
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Form of natural selection in which the entire curve moves; occurs when individuals at one end of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals in the middle or at the other end of the curve
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Post-zygotic Barriers
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reduced hybrid viability: offspring’s development is impaired. reduced hybrid fertility: offspring is sterile. hybrid breakdown: 2nd generation hybrids are not viable and/or fertile
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Sedimentary Rocks
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Rocks formed from the weathering, erosion, depostion, and compaction of other rocks
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Homology
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the quality of being similar or corresponding in position or value or structure or function
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Hardy-Weinbery Equilibrium
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1. evolution does not occur, because allelic frequencies never change 2. genotypic frequencies can be predicted from allelic frequencies
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Founder Effect
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change in allele frequencies as a result of the migration of a small subgroup of a population
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Stabilizing Selection
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form of natural selection by which the center of the curve remains in its current position; occurs when individuals near the center of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals at either end
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Allopatric Speciation
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The formation of a new species as a result of an ancestral population’s becoming isolated by a geographic barrier.
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Lamark’s Theory
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Hypothesized that species evolve through use and disuse of body parts and the inheritance of acquired characteristics. Unsupported
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Vestigial Organs
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organ that serves no useful function in an organism
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Gene Pool
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combined genetic information of all the members of a particular population
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Gene Flow
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exchange of genes between populations
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Disruptive Selection
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form of natural selection in which a single curve splits into two; occurs when individuals at the upper and lower ends of a distribution curve have higher fitness than individuals near the middle
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Sympathetic Speciation
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Occurs when species evolves into a new species in an area without a geographic barrier.
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Gradualism
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The theory that evolution occurs slowly but steadily
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Molecular Homologies
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homology of the genes and DNA between species due to a common ancestor
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Mutations
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changes in the genetic material
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Phenotypic Polymorphism
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The existence of two or more distinct morphs (discrete forms), each represented in a population in high enough frequencies to be readily noticeable
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Heterozygote Advantage
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Greater reproductive success of heterozygous individuals compared to homozygotes; tends to preserve variation in gene pools.
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Adaptive Radiation
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the development of many different forms from an originally homogeneous group of organisms as they fill different ecological niches
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Paleontology
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the earth science that studies fossil organisms and related remains
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Biogeography
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dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants
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Point Mutations
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gene mutations involving changes in one or a few nucleotides
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Genetic Polymorphism
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The existence of two or more distinct alleles at a given locus in a population’s gene pool.
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Sexual Selection
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A form of natural selection in which individuals with certain inherited characteristics are more likely than other individuals to obtain mates.
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Macroevolution
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evolution on a large scale extending over geologic era and resulting in the formation of new taxonomic groups
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Catastrophism
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a principle that states that geologic change occurs suddenly
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Microevolution
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evolution resulting from small specific genetic changes that can lead to a new subspecies
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Gene Duplication
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a mutation leading to the production of an extra copy of a gene locus, usually resulting from unequal crossing over. (source of new genes, allows new DNA to mutate and potentially gain new functions)
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Geographic Variation
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Differences between the gene pools of geographically separate populations or population subgroups.
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Homeotic genes
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Any of the genes that control the overall body plan of animals by controlling the developmental fate of groups of cells.
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Compound
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an enclosure of residences and other building (especially in the Orient)
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Nonpolar Covalent Bonds
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bonds in which electrons are shared equally between two atoms of the same element in a compound.
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Reactants
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the elements or compounds that enter into a chemical reaction
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Atomic Structure
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The atom consists of three component parts: Protons, Neutrons, and Electrons.
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Ion/Ionic Bond
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an atom or groups of atoms having an electrical charge because of the loss or gain of electrons.
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Products
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the elements or compounds produced by a chemical reaction
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Atomic Mass
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(chemistry) the mass (in atomic mass units) of an isotope of an element
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Hydrogen Bond
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a chemical bond consisting of a hydrogen atom between two electronegative atoms (e.g., oxygen or nitrogen) with one side be a covalent bond and the other being an ionic bond
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Electrons
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negatively charged particles
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Radioactive Isotope
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isotope in which the nucleus decays (breaks down) over time, giving off radiation in the form of matter and energy
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Protons
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positively charged particles
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Electron Energy
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Strength of an attachment of an electron
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Neutrons
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the particles of the nucleus that have no charge
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Potential Energy
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the mechanical energy that a body has by virtue of its position
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Atomic Number
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the order of an element in Mendeleyev’s table of the elements
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Electron Shells
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An energy level representing the distance of an electron from the nucleus of an atom.
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Polar Covalent Bonds
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a type of covalent bond between atoms that differ in electronegativity. the shared electrons are pulled closer to the more electronegative atom. making one slightly negative and the other slightly positive
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Valence Electrons
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electrons on the outermost energy level of an atom
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Functional Groups
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A specific configuration of atoms commonly attached to the carbon skeletons of organic molecules and usually involved in chemical reactions.
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Carbohydrates
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The starches and sugars present in foods
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Lipids
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energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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Proteins
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Macromolecules that contain nitrogen as well as carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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Nucleic Acids
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DNA and RNA
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Carbon
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an abundant nonmetallic tetravalent element occurring in three allotropic forms: amorphous carbon and graphite and diamond
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Amino
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the radical -NH2
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Starch
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a complex carbohydrate found chiefly in seeds, fruits, tubers, roots and stem pith of plants, notably in corn, potatoes, wheat, and rice
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Enzymes
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proteins that act as biological catalysts
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Organic Chemistry
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the chemistry of compounds containing carbon (originally defined as the chemistry of substances produced by living organisms but now extended to substances synthesized artificially)
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Sulfhydryl
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-SH
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Glycogen
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one form in which body fuel is stored
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Catalyst
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something that causes an important event to happen
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Hydrocarbons
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organic molecules that are composed of only carbon and hydrogen
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Phosphate
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carbonated drink with fruit syrup and a little phosphoric acid
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Cellulose
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a polysaccharide that is the chief constituent of all plant tissues and fibers
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Structural Isomers
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Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms.
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ATP
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a nucleotide derived from adenosine that occurs in muscle tissue
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Chitin
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a tough semitransparent horny substance
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Amino acid
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organic compounds containing an amino group and a carboxylic acid group
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Geometric Isomers
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Compounds that have the same molecular formula but differ in the spatial arrangements of their atoms.
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Polymer
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a naturally occurring or synthetic compound consisting of large molecules made up of a linked series of repeated simple monomers
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Lipids
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energy-rich organic compounds, such as fats, oils, and waxes, that are made of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen
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Peptide Bond
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the primary linkage of all protein structures
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Enantiomers
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molecules that are mirror images of each other
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Dehydration Reaction
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A chemical reaction in which two molecules covalently bond to each other with the removal of a water molecule.
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Fatty Acid
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any of a class of aliphatic monocarboxylic acids that form part of a lipid molecule and can be derived from fat by hydrolysis
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Monosaccharides
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single sugar molecules
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Saturated fat
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fat in which all three fatty acid chains contain the maximum possible number of hydrogen atoms
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Primary structure
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The level of protein structure referring to the specific sequence of amino acids.
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Hydroxyl
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the monovalent group -OH in such compounds as bases and some acids and alcohols
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Disaccharide
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any of a variety of carbohydrates that yield two monosaccharide molecules on complete hydrolysis
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Unsaturated fats
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fats that remain liquid at room temperature
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Secondary structure
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The second level of protein structure; the regular local patterns of coils or folds of a polypeptide chain.
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Carboxyl
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the univalent radical -COOH
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Glycosidic linkage
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A covalent bond formed between two monosaccharides by a dehydration reaction.
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Phospholipids
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A molecule that is a constituent of the inner bilayer of biological membranes, having a polar, hydrophilic head and a nonpolar, hydrophobic tail.
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Tertiary Structure
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The third level of protein structure; the overall, three-dimensional shape of a polypeptide due to interactions of the R groups of the amino acids making up the chain.
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Carbonyl
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a compound containing metal combined with carbon monoxide
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Cholesterol
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an animal sterol that is normally synthesized by the liver
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Quaternary Structure
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The fourth level of protein structure; the shape resulting from the association of two or more polypeptide subunits.
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Sickle Cell Disease
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A human genetic disease caused by a recessive allele that results in the substitution of a single amino acid in the hemoglobin protein; characterized by deformed red blood cells that can lead to numerous symptoms.
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Denaturation
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loss of normal shape of a protein due to heat or other factor
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DNA
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(biochemistry) a long linear polymer found in the nucleus of a cell and formed from nucleotides and shaped like a double helix
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RNA
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(biochemistry) a long linear polymer of nucleotides found in the nucleus but mainly in the cytoplasm of a cell where it is associated with microsomes
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Nucleotide
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a phosphoric ester of a nucleoside
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Purines
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adenine and guanine
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Pyramidines
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T&C are _____, have only one ring
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Antiparallel
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(especially of vectors) parallel but oppositely directed
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Polar Molecule
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molecule with an unequal distribution of charge, resulting in the molecule having a positive end and a negative end
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Solute
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the dissolved substance in a solution
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Base
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a support or foundation
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Cohesion
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the state of cohering or sticking together
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Aqueous Solution
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a solution in water
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pH Scale
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(chemistry) p(otential of) H(ydrogen)
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Adhesion
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faithful support for a religion or cause or political party
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Hydration Shell
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The sphere of water molecules around each dissolved ion
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Buffers
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weak acids or bases that can react with strong acids or bases to prevent sharp, sudden changes in pH
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Surface Tension
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a phenomenon at the surface of a liquid caused by intermolecular forces
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Hydrophillic
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water loving
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Hydrophobic
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lacking affinity for water
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Specific Heat
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the heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree centigrade
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Molarity
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concentration measured by the number of moles of solute per liter of solvent
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Heat of Vaporization
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heat absorbed by a unit mass of a material at its boiling point in order to convert the material into a gas at the same temperature
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pH-H Ion
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A measure of hydrogen ion concentration equal to -log [H+] and ranging in value from 0-14
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Solvent
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a statement that solves a problem or explains how to solve the problem
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Acids
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compounds that form hydrogen ions when dissolved in water
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Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
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System of internal membranes within the cytoplasm. Membranes are rough due to the presence of ribosomes. functions in transport of substances such as proteins within the cytoplasm
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Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum
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An endomembrane system where lipids are synthesized, calcium levels are regulated, and toxic substances are broken down.
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Golgi Apparatus
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a net-like structure in the cytoplasm of animal cells (especially in those cells that produce secretions)
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Mitochondria
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Powerhouse of the cell, organelle that is the site of ATP (energy) production
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Chloroplasts
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organelles that capture the energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical energy in a process called photosynthesis
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Secretory Vesicles
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contain secretions that will be discharged from the cell these vesicles will perform exocytosis (fusing with the plasma membrane to empty contents)
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Ribosomes
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Make proteins
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Flagella
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whiplike tails found in one-celled organisms to aid in movement
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Centrioles
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two tiny structures located in the cytoplasm near the nuclear envelope
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Cilia
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short structures projecting from a cell and containing bundles of microtubules that move a cell through its surroundings or move fluid over the cell’s surface
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Integral Proteins
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Typically transmembrane proteins with hydrophobic regions that completely span the hydrophobic interior of the membrane.
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Peripheral Proteins
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Protein appendages loosely bound to the surface of the membrane and not embedded in the lipid bilayer.
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Phospholipid
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any of various compounds composed of fatty acids and phosphoric acid and a nitrogenous base
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Passive Diffusion
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The movement of substances into or out of cells without the expenditure of energy or the involvement of transport proteins in the cell membrane. Also called simple diffusion.
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Active Diffusion
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movement from LOW to High areas of concentration. Requires enegry
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Active Transport
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transport of a substance (as a protein or drug) across a cell membrane against the concentration gradient
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Activation Energy
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the energy that an atomic system must acquire before a process (such as an emission or reaction) can occur
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Free Energy
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energy that is available to do work
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Interphase
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the period of the cell cycle during which the nucleus is not undergoing division, typically occurring between mitotic or meiotic divisions
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Prophase
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first and longest phase of mitosis, during which the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and take up positions on the opposite sides of the nucleus
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Metaphase
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the stage in mitosis or meiosis in which the duplicated chromosomes line up along the equatorial plate of the spindle
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Anaphase
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the stage of meiosis or mitosis when chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
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Telophase
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the final stage of meiosis when the chromosomes move toward opposite ends of the nuclear spindle
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Mitosis
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cell division in which the nucleus divides into nuclei containing the same number of chromosomes
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Meiosis
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(genetics) cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
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Eukaryotes
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cells that contain nuclei
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Prokaryotes
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cells that do NOT contain nuclei
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Endosymbiotic Theory
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theory that eukaryotic cells formed from a symbiosis among several different prokaryotic organisms
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Transcription
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(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
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Translation
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(genetics) the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
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Lac Operon
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a gene system whose operator gene and three structural genes control lactose metabolism in E. coli
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Triptophan
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an amino acid which can be deaminated to form a pyruvate for use in the glycolytic pathway
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Gene Expression
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conversion of the information encoded in a gene first into messenger RNA and then to a protein
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Monohybrid Crosses
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Crosses that examine the inheritance of only one specific trait
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Dihybrid Crosses
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crosses that examine the inheritance of two different traits
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Sex-linked traits
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traits that are inherited with sex chromosomes
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Multiple Alleles
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three or more forms of a gene that code for a single trait
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Chi Square
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test of statistical significance for categorical date; non-parametric
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Incomplete Dominance
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one allele is not completely dominant over the other allele
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Codominance
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Situation in which both alleles of a gene contribute to the phenotype of the organism
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G1
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first phase of interphase; cell grows in size
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G0
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non-dividing, \”resting\” stage of interphase
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S Phase
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The synthesis phase of the cell cycle; the portion of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
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G2
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The final period of interphase during which the cell prepares for mitosis.
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M Phase
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the phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis

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