2. All societies need to make provision for orderly mating and child-rearing that give rise to patterned systems of marriage and family.
3. Universal societal need for cultural transmission.
4. Universal need to avoid chaos and anarchy.
5. Universal need to explain the unexplained.
6. Universal need to communicate and develop language.
Enculturation is the gradual acquisition of the characteristics and norms of a culture or group by a person, another culture, etc.
One of the most pervasive values in American culture is individualism, and understanding its effects can help illuminate many aspects of the culture.
Because of the emphasis on the individual, Americans can be quite competitive.
The right to privacy is a notion that runs deep in American culture. Both respected and defended, privacy is considered fundamental to a free society.
Americans value their privacy, but they are also taught to be open and direct. If they think you aren’t being open and honest with them, then they may believe you are hiding something.
Efficiency is a virtue in the U.S. Americans are apt to become impatient with slow-moving lines in supermarkets and banks, especially if the teller or checkout person is slowing down the line by chatting with the customers.
Americans can be quite informal in their general behaviors and relationships with others.
America is known as the ―land of opportunity,‖ and this has helped perpetuate the idea, as stated in the Declaration of Independence that ―all men are created equal.
Even though Americans can be quite informal, visitors usually find them quite polite.
Social protocols are quite relaxed in the U.S., so there are very few taboos.
Americans can be very exuberant, warm people. They often speak fairly loudly compared to speakers from other cultures, because they believe it is important to be assertive.
To Americans, a friend can be an acquaintance—or someone they have known for a long time.
Practicing Anthropology is a career-oriented publication of the Society for Applied Anthropology.
Its aim is to gain a close and intimate familiarity with a given group of individuals (such as a religious, occupational, sub cultural group, or a particular community) and their practices through an intensive involvement with people in their cultural environment, usually over an extended period of time.
Anthropology of religion is the study of religion in relation to other social institutions, and the comparison of religious beliefs and practices across cultures.
Religion is an organized system based around forming a connection to the metaphysical.
Magic is utilizing supernatural forces to effect a desired result.
Durkheim believed that the primary function of religion was to preserve and solidify society. It functions to reinforce the collective unity or social solidarity of a group. Sharing the same religion or religious interpretation of the meaning of life unites people in a cohesive and building moral order.
2. Creating a Moral Community:
Religion provides a system of beliefs around which people may gather to belong to something greater than themselves in order to have their personal beliefs reinforced by the group and its rituals. Those who share a common ideology develop a collective identity and a sense of fellowship.
3. Religion as Social Control:
Frank E. Manuel (1959) had said that ‘religion was a mechanism which inspired terror, but terror for the preservation of society’. While conservatives have valued religion for its protective function, radicals have also often recognized that religion can be a support of the established order, and have, consequently, been critical of religion.
4. Provides Rites of Passage:
Religion helps us in performing ceremonies and rituals related to rites of passage (birth, marriage, death and other momentous events) which give meaning and a social significance to our life.
5. Religion as Emotional Support:
Religion is a sense of comfort and solace to the individuals during times of personal and social crises such as death of loved ones, serious injury, etc. This is especially true when something ‘senseless’ happens. It gives them emotional support and provides consolation, reconciliation and moral strength during trials and defeats, personal losses and unjust treatments.
6. Religion Serves a Means to Provide Answers to Ultimate Questions:
Why are we here on earth? Is there a supreme being? What happens after death? All religions have certain notions and beliefs that provide answers to the above questions. These beliefs are based on the faith that life has a purpose, and there is someone or something that controls the universe. It defines the spiritual world and gives meaning to the divine. Because of its beliefs concerning people’s relationships to a beyond, religion provides an explanation for events that seem difficult to understand.
7. Religion as a Source of Identity:
Religion gives individuals a sense of identity—a profound and positive self-identity. It enables them to cope effectively with the many doubts and indignation of everyday life. Religion may suggest people that they are not worthless or meaningless creatures and thus helps them alleviating the frustrating experiences of life which sometimes force a person to commit suicide. According to Thomas Luckman (1983), ‘The prime function of religion is to give personal meaning to life’.
In modern world, religion has also become a supporting psychology—a form of psychotherapy. Now, God is conceived of as a humane and considerate God. Such a hopeful perception helps the sufferer in alleviating his/her personal and social crisis.
9. Psychologizing Religion:
The notion of ‘positive thinking’ serves as an example of psychologizing religion. It provides peace of mind, promises prosperity and success in life, as well as effective and happy human relations. It is thus a source of security and confidence, and also of happiness and success in this world.
But at times religion can be debilitating and personally destructive. Persons convinced of their own essential wickedness can suffer extreme personal difficulties. As Kingsley Davis (1949) noted, ‘Like other medicines, it (religion) can sometimes make worse the very thing it seeks to remedy.
Innumerable are the psychoses and neuroses that have religious content’. But, in this role, religion is not always harmful. Many times, it serves as a liberating and integrating force for individuals. For instance, it helps in bringing change (sobriety) to seemingly hopeless alcoholics.
In an open system, you can send messages that have never been sent before.
with one another?
Morphemes are two or more phonemes combined. They are the smallest linguistic forms (usually words) that convey meaning.
Grammar is the systematic rules by which sounds are combined in a language to enable users to send and receive meaningful utterances.
Morphology is the study of the rules that govern how morphemes are formed into words.
Syntax is the linguistic rules, found in all languages, that determine how phrases and sentences are contracted.
An approach to anthropology that assumes that people who reside in similar environment are likely to develop similar technologies, social structures, and political institutions. p(334)
Horticultural societies, such as the Yanomamo, who live in the Amazon Basin of Venezuela and Brazil, are known to supplement their diet with occasional hunting and gathering animals.
Still other horticultural groups, such as the Samoans, supplement their crops with protein derived from fishing, while the Miskitos, indigenous people of the coastal Nicaragua, fish and raise small domesticated livestock along with their horticultural practices.
In Central America, Mayan horticulturalists augment their crops(corn, beans, squash,pumpkins, and chili peppers) with fruit-bearing trees such as papaya, avocado, and cacao.
Pastorialism is most practiced in areas of the world where the terrain, soil, or rainfall is inadequate for agriculture but provides sufficient vegetation for livestock to graze. Pastoralism is generally associated with geographic mobility because herds must be moved periodically to exploit seasonal pastures and water sources.
Anthropologists differentiate between two types of patterns among pastoralists: transhumance and nomadism. A third form of pastoralism found in industrial societies is known as sedentary ranching and dairy farming.
Intensive agriculture is characterized by the use of the plow, draft animals, or machinery to plow, fertilize, and irrigate.The system is designed to produce a surplus,and as a consequence of increased productivity, there is an increase in the human carrying capacity. Cultivators who invested their time and energy in a piece of land developed
their subsistence strategies.
farmers and fishermen?
Have solutions to making the water safe that benefit the people and the environment of fish and other living sea creatures.
Affinal relatives – Relatives through marriage
Endogamy – requirement to marry inside of a certain group
and gender identity in a society?
beginning cultural anthropology student?
does it take place?
regulating human interaction.
Disadvantages: You don’t get to pick your own spouse. Not based on love. A woman’s in-laws might kill her so they can get another dowry.
traditional Indian parents be reluctant to look for a bride from a
family which has many daughters?
their dead children?
social structure of Bom Jesus, Brazil that might be made to change
the way mothers deal with the death of their children?
the most egalitarian?
The Washo Indians were most egalitarian.
men and women today?
power and status?