anthropology Ch.4

humans are more social than other animals because of what?
Features of anatomy

what are the facts that guided female pelvis evolution?
1. walking upright
2. babies born with big brains
3. babies have to negotiate a complicated birth canal

True or False. assisted child birth dates back thousands of years.
False. assisted cild birth dates back to millions of years

midwives abstractions and baby showers are all apart of what?
deep rooted evolutionary manifestation of human sociality.

Archaeologists study what?
material culture, and written records if available.

biological anthropologists study what?
Biological remains. shush as their genetics, growth, development, and physiological adaptation.

archaeologist reconstruct what?
human behavior, social patterns, and cultural features. through material culture, and written records if available.

paleoanthropologist study what?
study human evolution through skeletal materials shush as biological traces like Pollens and animal bones.

biological anthropologist and archaeologist share what?
sum comen intrest and techniques.

Research Methods in archae and bio are.
1. Multidisciplinary Approaches
2. Sudying the Past
3. Survey and Excavation

study of ancient life through the fossil record.

Multidisciplinary Approaches
scientist from diverse fields collaborate with archaeologist and biological anthropologist in the study of ancient site’s. like soil science and Paleontology.

some collaborations you may see in the field are.
palynology used to determine a site’s environment at the time of occupation, physicists and chemist to help with dating techniques, Bioarchaeologists may form pictures of ancient life at a site by human skeletons to reconstruct their physical traits, health and diet.

bones, jewels, buildings can be evidence for what?
social status

True or False. difference in in the chemical composition of groups of bones at a site can help determine the rich from the pour.

a microscopic crystal found in many plants, including, wheat, maize, rice, beans, squash, manioc and other early domesticates.

do not decay.

phytolith on teeth remains can help reveal what.
what type of diet people have.

starch grain analysis
recovers microfossils of food plants from the stone tools used to process them.

starch grain
is vary hard to decay. remains have been found on stone tools, pottery fragments, basketry, and human coprolites.

how do geologist, geographers, and other scientists in using satellite images help anthropologist.
by finding footpaths, roads, canals, and irrigation systems. which can be investigated on ground.

remote sensing
use of aerial photos and satellite images to locate sites on the ground.

remote sensing can also be used for what
to show patterns of the recent past past. like sites of flooding and devastation. to see which regions where severely devastated.

are remains, traces, or impressions, of ancient life forms.

the most and direct method in finding the date of artifacts is.

what dose a field crew do?
survey, map the land and stare searching for bones and artifacts eroding out of the soil. also they take pollen and soil,samples ecological analysis.

sediments and other geological samples suggest what?
climtatic conditions at the time of deposition.

the most common local approach is to what?
excavate, or dig through layers in a site.

the regional approach includes.
remote sensing.

what are the two key fieldwork strategies archaeologist use?
systematic survey and excavation.

systematic survey
a regional perspective by gathering information on settlements patterns over a large area.

settlement patterns
how people grouped themselves and interacted spatially.

regional survey reconstruct settlement patterns by asking what questions?
where were sites located? how big were they? what kinds of building did they have? how old are the sites?

with regional data many archaeologist can address many questions about what?
prehistoric communities that lived in a given area.

Ture or False the increase in social complexity settlement patterns become more elaborate. population levels rise.

trade and warfare have what?
place an in portent role in the location of sites.

regional centers did what to smaller sites with less agricultural differentiation?
exerted control over them.

digging through deposits that make up a site. layers called strata

establish the time order of materials.

nobody digs with out a reason why?
it is labor-intensive and expensive.

(CRM) Cultural Resources Management
manage the preservation of archaeological sites that are threatened by modern development.

before a site is excavated it is what?
surface collected and mapped to know where exactly to dig.

a grid to subdivide the site allows archaeologist to what
enable the researchers to record the exact location of the artifacts.

Arbitrary levels is soil removed systematically from the excavation unit. it is done for a quick way of digging how?
every thing with in a certain depth is removed at once. normal done in test pits.

test pits
used to determine how deep a site goes and establishes a rough chronology of that site.

What is more labor intensive and refined a way of excavating?
Digging through the stratigraphy one layer at a time. providing more information about the context of the artifacts or features. Providing a more detailed picture.

to insure small and covered the soil is passed through what?

To recover very small remains archaeologist use what technique?

Soil samples are sorted using water and a series of very fine meshes, when water dissolves the soil, the carbonized plant remains float to the top.

Because flotation is time-consuming. Quotation samples are taking from what limited number of deposits?
House floors, trash pits and hearths.

Experimental archaeologist
Try to replace ancient techniques and processes under controlled conditions. Work with remains much more recent than advent of writing.

Colonial archaeologist
Our historical or geologist use written records as guides to locate and excavate Post-contact sites in North and South America and to verify or question the written accounts

Classical archaeologist
Are you affiliated with university departments of classics or the history of art, rather than anthropology departments. Focus on literate civilizations of the world such as Greece, Rome, and Egypt.

What is the difference between classical archaeologist and the typical anthropological archaeologist.
Classical archaeologist are often more interested in the style of architecture and sculpture then in the social, economic, and political features.

Underwater archaeologist
Investigates submerged sites, most often shipwrecks. Special techniques include remotely operated vehicles, divers also do a underwater survey and excavation.

Some CRM archaeologist
are contract archaeologist who typically negotiate specific contracts for their studies.

True or false. The chance of fossilization increases when remains are buried, in silt gravel, sand, and volcanic ash.

Good places for bone preservation includes what?
Swamps, floodplains, Rive deltas, lakes, and cakes.

To study of the process that affect the remains of dead animals is called what.

Taphonomy processes include what?
Scattering by carnivores and scavengers distortion buy various forces and the possible fossilization of the remains.

The condition under which fossils or found influence the fossil record.
Fossils tomorrow likely to be uncovered through erosion and aired areas then in what areas.

The study of ancient humans and there immediate ancestors. Established the time frame

Dating may be
relative or absolute

Relative dating
establishes a timeframe in relation to other strata materials rather than absolute dating in numbers.

the science that examines the ways in which earth sediments accumulate in strata.

fluorine absorption analysis.
Bones fertilizing in the same ground for the same length of time absorb the same portion fluorine from the local groundwater.

Fossils can be dated more precisely, with dates and numbers this is what
absolute dating. Note that absolute dating is that in name only; it may give range of numbers rather then exact dates.

carbon-14 technique is used to
date organic remains.determine a fossils date of death or the date of in ancient campfire.less dependable for specimens older than 40,000 year.

potassium-Aragon technique. K 40
metric dating far longer than carbon-14. With this method the older the specimen the more reliable the dating. can only be used on in organic substances like rocks and minerals.cannot be used to materials list then 500,000 years old.

uranium series dating
measures vision tracks produced touring the decay of radio active uranium U 238 into lead

thermoluninescence TL and electron spin resonance ESR.
Measure of electrons that are constantly being trapped in rocks and mineral.

or tree ring skating, as a method of absolute dating based on the study and comparison of patterns of tree ring group because trees grow by adding one ring every year, Counting the rings reveals the age of the tree.

wide range grew doing what years, while narrow rings grew during dry years.

moisture, cold, or drought, produce a distinctive year by year ring pattern.

limited to certain tree species those growing in climate with changing seasons. The technique works with Oak Pine Kuiper fire boxwood Joel spruce and occasionally chestnut.

Molecular anthropology
uses genetic analysis to estimate evolutionary relationships.

Molecular anthropology
reconstruct waves and patterns of migration in settlement

is the biological lineage define by a specific cluster of genetic traits that occur together.

using garbage to interpret behavior among contemporary humans.

study Matters of movement or growth in the development on living people

Bone biology
he study of bones as a biological tissue, Including its genetics; cell structure; growth, development, and decay; and patterns of movement.

is the study of disease and injury and skeletons from archaeological sites.

is the measurement of human body parts and dimensions, Including skeletal parts

considered a subfield of biological anthropology. Primate studies are useful to paleoanthropologist who are attempting to understand the behavior and social life of ancient hominins.

Ethical issues
need to negotiate the matter of where the Materials produced by the research will be analyzed and stored-and the host country or In the anthropologist country-for how long

informed consent
agreement to take part in the research-After having been informed about its nature, procedures, the possible impacts, should be obtained from anyone he provides information or if you might be affected by the research.

primates can’t give informed consent
government agencies or nongovernmental organizations NGO hey be entrusted with protecting Primates.

Informed consent for living humans
must be told how the samples will be collected, used, and identified, and about the potential cost and benefits of them. needed from anyone providing Data or information

North America anthropologist working in an Another country
to 1 include host country colleagues in their research planning and request for funding, 2 established truly collaborative relationships with those colleagues and their institutions before, Doreen, and after fieldwork, 3 include host country colleagues in dissemination come including publication, of the research results, and 4 and sure that something is given back to host country colleagues

ethical issues continue to rise.
Lawsuits against museums by groups seeking the repatriation of remains and artifacts have become common.

. The native American graves protection and repatriation act NAGPRA
gives a ownership of native American remains to native Americans.

The 1996 Discovery in Washington state of skeleton dubbed Kennywick man
Judge John shoulder kiss ruled that the Kennewick man remains could be subject to scientific study.

, The American anthropologist cool Association AAA offers a code of ethics.
nthropologists have obligations to their scullery field, to the wider society and culture, and to the human species, other species, in that environment. Anthropologist for concern should be to do no harm to people, animals, or artifacts being studied

code of ethics addresses
be open and honest about their research projects with all parties affected by the research. These parties should be informed about the nature, Procedures, purpose, Potential impact, and source of support for the research. Researchers should pay attention to proper relations between themselves as a guest in the host nations and committees where they work