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Anthropology Ch. 13

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relatedness
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refers to the socially recognized ties that connect people to one another
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kinship
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refers to forms of relatedness believed to come from shared substance and its transmission based on the universal biological experiences of mating, birth, and nurturance
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substance
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may be believed to be bodily or spiritual
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bodily substance
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blood, genes, mother’s milk
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spiritual substance
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soul, spirit, nurturance, love
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kinship systems
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focus on ideas about shared substance and its transmission, often thought to take place in the process of sexual reproduction; help societies maintain social order without central government
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marriage
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social process that transforms status of the participants, carries implications about permitted sexual access the partners may have to each other, perpetuates social patterns through the birth or adoption of offspring, creates relationships between the kin of partners
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sex
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refers to observable physical characteristics that distinguish two kinds of humans, females, and males, needed for biological reproduction
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gender
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the cultural construction of beliefs and behaviors considered appropriate for each sex, physical sex differences do not predict the roles of males or females in society
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descent
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refers to principles based on culturally recognized parent-child connections that define the social categories to which people belong; links members of different generations with each other
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matrilineages
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trace descent through the mother
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patrilineages
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trace descent through the father and are the most common form of lineage organization
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clans
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descent groups formed by members who believe they have a common (sometimes mythical) ancestor, even if they cannot specify the genealogical inks; are usually composed of lineages
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ascribed status
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social position assigned to person at birth
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achieved status
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social position person attains later in life as the result of their own or other people’s efforts
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consanguineal relationship
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based on descent
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affinal relationship
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created through marriage, or affinity
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endogamy
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marriage within a defined social group
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exogamy
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marriage outside a defined social group
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divorce
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represents the end of a marriage
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neolocal
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married couple sets up a household in a new location
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patrilocal
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married couple sets up a household with the husband’s father
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matrilocal
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a married couple sets up a household with the wife’s mother
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avunculocal
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a married couple sets up a household with the husband’s mother’s brother
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monogamy
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marriage to one person at a time
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polygamy
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marriage to more than one person at a time
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polygyny
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man has more than one wife
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polyandry
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woman has more than one husband
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bridewealth
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transfer of goods from the family of the groom to the family of the bride at marriage
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dowry
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transfer of wealth, usually from parents to their daughter, at the time of her marriage
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sexual practices
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emotional or affectional relationships between sexual partners and the physical activities they engage in with one another