Anthropology 141 Exam 2

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Bronislaw Malinowski
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According to Lassiter, anthropologists associate the development of modern ethnography with:
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A field method for studying culture A way of writing about culture
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Ethnography is:
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Participant-observation
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The ethnographic research method that relies primarily on direct involvement with people as they go about their daily lives (through taking part in their lice and paying attention to what they do) is called:
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Culture shock
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The mental and physical discomfort that often accompanies an encounter between two different systems of meaning:
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Emic Knowledge
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Lassiter writes that ethnoscience as a method of writing about culture emphasizes:
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False
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Emic knowledge is an outsider’s explanation of a particular cultural practice
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True
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According to Clifford Geertz, ethnography is better seen as a kind of interpretation rather than a record of undisputed fact
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False
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Anthropologists tend to believe that they have to eliminate all their biases in order to do rigorous, objective ethnography
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False
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Anthropoligists generally believe that fieldwork helps them to avoid culture shock
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False
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Ethnography is useful for learning about other cultural groups, but tells us nothing about ourselves
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Foraging
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According to Lassiter, the most stable form of cultural adaption humans have ever developed is:
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How well nourished they were, how little they worked, and how little they suffered disease
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Ethnographers working with foraging groups were initially surprised by:
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Developed strategies dealing with pimps, customers, and law officers that helped them gain a sense of control over their lives
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In her research on prostitution in New York City and Atlanta, Claire Sterk found that the women she worked with:
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A culture that had developed elaborate rules of exchange and recognition in order to maintain egalitarian social relations in harsh environmental conditions
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Richard Lee’s fieldwork among the !Kung in the Kalahari provides evidence of:
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True
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According to Lassiter, humans most likely knew about the domestication of plants and animals long before they actually chose to practice it
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True
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According to Lassiter, the adoption of agriculture reduced the mobility of groups of humans, which eventually made them dependent on trade for survival
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False
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While doing fieldwork in the Kalahari, Richard Lee discovered that the !Kung always emphasized their gratitude toward others in order to make them feel uniquely worthy and special
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False
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Claire Sterk’s fieldwork among sex-workers in New York and Atlanta shows that successful anthropological work requires distance from the people that anthropologists work with in order to remain objective and make clear moral judgments
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True
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According to Horace Miner’s article, a basic idea in Macirema culture is that a person’s oral condition is very important in developing successful relationships
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Both market and state systems
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According to Lassiter, the larger cultural framework that mediates our relationship with the environment at a global level is powerfully shaped by:
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An economic system dominated by the supply-demand price mechanism called market A way of life that grew up win response and in service to the market
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According to Schultz and Lavenda, capitalism refers to:
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Colonialism
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Political conquest of one society by another, followed by cultural domination and enforced social change, is a definition of:
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Acting and thinking in ways far removed from those of the modern West
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Appfel-Marglin reports that many indigenous thinkers, activists, and groups have concluded that the best path for colonized people in response to colonization is:
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Anthropological evidence suggests that incorporation into the world-market economy has been harmful to the health and standards of living of most tribal people
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In \”The Price of Progress\”, Bodley argues that
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Actively destroyed indigineous food ststems by taking over land, both for the benefit of colonial commerical enterprises and in order to generate a constantly vulnerable and available labor force:
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According to the authors of \”Why can’t people feed themselves\”, European colonial rule in Africa and Asia:
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False
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The effect of the fur trade on North American indigenous groups was to significantly boost their economic power and so strengthen their societies
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True
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One of the key dimensions of capitalist economy is that goods are produced primarily for sale rather than for user
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False
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Before Capitalism, there had never been complex commercial activity anywhere in the world
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False
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Although Western European colonial contact with the rest of the world was focused on the extraction of material wealth, it was received enthusiastically by various groups because it promoted cross cultural understanding
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False
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Schultz and Lavenda agree with the assumption that the cultures of people dominated by the West are doomed to disappear and that members of such societies will have to adopt Western ways or perish
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-Begin with little or nothing in terms of shared experience -Engage in dialogue with each other about the activities going on around them -Consciously shift perspectives: Each thinks critically about own experience in relation to that of others (reflexivity)
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Fieldwork is a dialectical process in which the fieldworker and the informant
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An extended period of close involvement with the people in whose language or way of life an anthropologist is interested
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Ethnographic Fieldwork
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Each different part of culture fulfilled a particular function to fulfill particular human needs of a group of people
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Milinowski \”Culture As Functional\”
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Relations between individuals
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Interpersonal power:
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How individuals or social units can limit the actions of other individuals in certain social settings
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Organizational power:
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How local social settings are organized into larger social structures: How social labor is allocated across social settings
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Structural power:
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Ideology of dominant group as norm, benefits them disproportionately while perceived to benefit all
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Hegemony:
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Biopower
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Form of power preoccupied with bodies- the bodies of citizens and the social body itself
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Governmentality
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The art of governing appropriate to promoting the welfare of populations within a state
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The capacity to transform
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Anthropologists define power as:
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Structual Power
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According to Eric Wolf, which of the following terms refers to the power to organize social settings and control the allocation/distribution of social labor at a large scale:
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Sovereignty base on physical coercion
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In traditional Western political thought, the prototype of legitimate power in human social relations is based on:
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The identification of specific human populations, and the use of knowledge about them to regulate and manage them, is a modern phenomonenon
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Foucault’s concepts of bio-power and governmentality draw attention to the fact that:
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True
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Based on their comparative ethnographic and historical research, most anthropologists disagree with Hobbe’s view that a strong state is necessary to maintain social order
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False
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Anthropologists have found the concept of hegemony to be useful because it emphasizes domination and physical force, instead of focusing on cultural symbols and practices, in struggles to consolidate social organizations and political control
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False
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Azande commoners did not accuse chiefs of witchcraft mainly because they feared retribution if they made their suspicions public
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True
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According to Gramsci, rulers who provide some genuine benefits to their subjects, but spread an ideology that justifies their rile and succeeds in protecting their privileges, are exercising hegemony
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False
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The study of social power in anthropology shows us that power is not embedded in social and cultural contexts and relations, but is only effective when it are owned and used by powerful people
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Political Anthropology
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The study of power in human social and cultural groups is known as:
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Cultural Reproduction
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Human beings use knowledge that they learn from their environment to survive. They continuously add to, change, and transmit this knowledge to subsequent generations
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Horticulture
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small scale nonindustrial cultivation of plants; crop rotation
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Pastoralism
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domestication, control, and breeding of a specific herd of animals
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Capitalism
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An economic system dominated by the supply‐demand price mechanism called the market.
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Neocolonialism
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The persistence of profound social and economic entanglements linking former colonial territories to their former colonial rulers despite political sovereignty

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