Anthro exam 2

Flashcard maker : Marie Florence
In all human societies (Blank) and (Blank) operate as the 2 very basic economic principles
Family and Kin
a sum of money or quantity of goods given to a bride’s family by that of the groom
Bride Price
Descent group most common in non-western societies
Unilineal
Patralinieal descent system, what does not exist in terms of the ego
Ego Sister
Efforts of the individual are
achieved
Human beings primary means of communication
language
means of connection between people or places, in particular
Communication
Communication systems of nonhuman primates
Call systems
smallest sound contrast that distinguishes meaning
Phoneme
Study of a language’s phonemics and phonetics
Phonology
Study of morphemes and word construction
morphology
All the morphemes in a language and their meaning
Lexicon
Arrangement of words in phrases and sentences
Syntax
Study of speech sounds
Phonetics
Study of sound contrasts in a language
Phonemics
Noam chomsky
Limited set of rules for organizing language, all languages have common structural basis
Spair-Whorf
Different languages produce different ways of thinking
Set of words describing particular domains of experience
Focal vocabulary
means of connection between people or places, in particular.
Pidgin
Impact of language loss
Less diversity
Identification with an ethnic group
Ethnicity
Ethnic group assumed to have a biological basis
Race
Race is a
social construction
Genotype
What you cant see
Phenotype
Evident biological traits
Vitamin D on dark skin
Dark skin doesn’t absorb as much Vitamin D, take supplements
Prejudice
Devaluing a group because of its assumed attributes
Discrimination
Policies and practices that harm a group and its members
Sex
Your biological sex assignment
Gender
What you think of yourself as
Patriarchy Matriarchy
Power
Patrilineal Matrilineal
Lineage
Patrilocal Matrilocal
Residence
Why do we study kinship?
Because it is important to the people we study
Nuclear family in whicn one is born and grows up in
Family of orientation
Nuclear family established when one marries and has children
Family of procreation
Ambilineal
Flexible descent rule, neither patrilineal nor matrilineal
Kinship in the US
Bilateral
Lineal
ancestor or descendent
Affinal
People that marry into family
Collateral
Everyone that is not lineal or affinal
Genitor
Biological father
Pater
Socially recognized father
exogamy
Seeking spouse outside ones group
Endogamy
Marriage of people from same group
Exogamy and endogamy can
function at the same time
Why do we marry out?
To meet new people and be social
Moiety
either of two groups into which a society is divided
TRiangle
male
Circle
female
square
regardless of sex
equal sign
marriage
equal sign slashed
divorced
line
descent
bracket
Siblings
Line through triangle or circle
death
F
Father
M
Mother
S
son
z
sister
d
daughter
b
brother
c
child
h
husband
w
wife
Research on the communication skills of nonhuman primates reveals their inability to refer to objects that are not immediately present in their environment, such as food and danger. The ability to describe things and events that are not present is called
Displacement
Which of the following was studied by Sapir and Whorf?
the influence of language on thought
What is an example of what Bourdieu calls symbolic domination in the context of language use?
In a stratified society, even people who do not speak the prestige dialect tend to accept it as standard or superior.
A key feature of language that helps explain anthropologists’ continued interest in studying it
is that it is always changing.
Just as in other areas of anthropology, the study of language involves investigating what is or isn’t shared across human populations and why these differences or similarities exist. The linguist Noam Chomsky has argued that the human brain contains a limited set of rules for organizing language, so that all languages have a common structural basis. He calls this set of rules
the universal grammar.
What term refers to the arrangement and order of words into sentences?
Syntax
A sociolinguist studies
the minimal sound contrasts that distinguish meaning in a language
Recent research on the origins of language suggests that a key mutation might have something to do with it. Comparing chimp and human genomes, it appears that
the speech-friendly form of FOXP2 took hold in humans some 150,000 years ago, thus conferring selective advantages (linguistic and cultural abilities) that allowed those who had it to spread it, at the expense of those who did not.
One aspect of linguistic history is language loss. When a language disappears,
cultural diversity is reduced as well.
Which of the following is the most likely reason for the dark skin color shared by tropical Africans and southern Indians?
prevention of hypervitaminosis D
The Basque people, one of Europe’s most distinctive ethnic groups, have maintained a strong ethnic identity and a language that is unrelated to any other known language. However, Basque faces the same pressures all minority languages do:
Knowledge of the national language—in this case Spanish or French—is essential, and most education, publishing, and broadcasting is in the national language.
In understanding the problems that have arisen in attempts at human racial classification, why is it important to understand the difference between genotype and phenotype?
Attempts at human racial classification typically used phenotypic traits like skin color as markers of common ancestry, but many such traits do not reflect the existence of shared genetic material. Instead, they are often the result of different populations biologically adapting to similar environmental stressors in similar ways.
Which of the following statements about U.S. racial categories is true? They are
culturally arbitrary, even though most people assume them to be based in biology.
Which of the following statements about human skin color is not true?
The amount of melanin in the skin affects the body’s ability to process lactose
Depending on the situation, the same man might declare: \”I’m Jimmy’s father\”; \”I’m your boss\”; \”I’m African American\”; or \”I’m your professor.\” This phenomenon, whereby a person’s claimed or perceived identity varies depending on context, is called
a situational negotiation of social identity.
A policy of ethnic expulsion aims at removing from a country groups who are culturally different. There are many examples, including Bosnia-Herzegovina in the 1990s; Uganda expelling 74,000 Asians in 1972, and so on. The neofascist parties of contemporary western Europe advocate the repatriation of immigrant workers. What is one of the potential consequences of such policies?
the creation of refugees—people who have been forced or have chosen to flee a country, to escape persecution or war.
Organizations in the United States such as the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People and the National Council of La Raza, a Hispanic advocacy group, have opposed adding a \”multiracial\” census category. This suggests that
classification is a political issue—these groups fear that their political clout will decline if their numbers go down.
What is the term for policies and practices that harm a group and its members?
Discrimination
What is the term for the use of force by a dominant group to compel a minority to adopt the dominant culture?
Forced assimilation
1 / 1 point
Research among horticultural societies has found that
Women are main producers
More than half of all U.S. families living in poverty are
Headed by women
Recently, India’s four largest cities introduced commuter trains exclusively for female passengers. The aim of this new service was to
offer women an alternative way of transportation to and from work with less risk of harassment or violence.
According to studies in the 1960s, why did young Etoro men and boys engage in homosexual relationships?
They believed it necessary for boys to ingest semen in order to mature in a healthy way.
In which type of society would you expect women’s status to be highest?
hunters and gatherers
According to anthropologist Ann Stoler, the economic determinants of gender status include
freedom or autonomy in terms of disposing of one’s labor and its fruits, and social power: control over the lives, labor, and produce of others.
What makes Patricia Draper’s fieldwork among the Ju/’hoansi so insightful regarding the relationships among economy, gender roles, and stratification?
Because she studied both foragers and a group of former foragers who had become sedentary, she could draw comparisons between the two.
Which of the following statements is not true?
The feminization of poverty is unique to the United States.
Recent cross-cultural studies of gender roles demonstrate that
the relative status of women is variable, depending on such factors as the type of subsistence strategy employed, the importance of warfare, and the prevalence of a domestic-public dichotomy.
What does the domestic-public dichotomy refer to? The separation of
Home and the outside world
Among the Yanomami of Venezuela and Brazil, as in many societies with unilineal descent, which of the following is true? Marriage between
cross-cousins is preferred; marriage between parallel cousins is considered incest.
The incest taboo is a cultural universal, but
not all cultures define incest the same way.
A Nuer woman married to a woman can be the pater of a child she did not father. Native American berdaches, biological men who represent a third gender, sometimes assume the role of a wife when married to a man with whom they share the products of their labor. Cross-cultural examples such as these illustrate
how, if they were to be made legal, same-sex marriages could easily benefit from the same legal rights different-sex marriages already enjoy.
In a society with two exogamous lineages or moieties, who is the preferred bride for a male ego?
MBD
A recent cross-cultural study of 87 societies, all of which had incest taboos, investigated the rate at which such taboos were broken. The results of this study add to the evidence that
although tabooed, incest does happen.
Which of the following statements about polyandry is most likely true?
It is a cultural adaptation to mobility associated with male travel for trade, commerce, and warfare.
What term refers to the biological father of a child?
Genitor
Polygamy, although formally outlawed, has survived in Turkey since the Ottoman period, when having several wives was viewed as a symbol of power, wealth, and sexual prowess. Unlike the past, when the practice was customary and not illegal, polygamy can put contemporary women at risk. How?
Because their marriages have no official status, secondary wives who are abused or mistreated have no legal recourse.
All of the following are a form of polygamy except
a man who marries, then divorces, then marries again, then divorces again, then marries again, each time to a different woman.
Which of the following is ego’s cross-cousin?
MBS
What is the name of the family in which a child is raised? The
family of orientation
In a bifurcate merging kinship system, which of the following would be called by the same term?
M and MZ
Which of the following kin types is not ego’s lineal relative?
B
In a lineal system of kinship terminology, which of the following pairs would be called by the same term?
FB and MB
Kinship terminology is a classification system, a taxonomy or typology. More generally, a taxonomic system
is based on how people perceive similarities and differences in the things being classified.
Understanding kinship systems is an important part of anthropology because
kinship ties are important to the people anthropologists study; they are a key component of people’s everyday social relations.
In a bifurcate merging kinship terminology, what is merged?
lineal relatives and collateral relatives
What makes up ego’s nuclear family of orientation?
Parents and siblings
According to genealogical kin types used by anthropologists to study kinship relations, what kind of relative is ego’s mother’s brother? A(n)
collateral

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