Anthropology 150 – Flashcards

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Anthropology
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the social science that studies the origins and social relationships of human beings
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Culture
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study of living human society. Describes, analyzes, interprets and explains social and cultural similarities and diff how they change over time
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ethnography
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participating in and observing other cultures
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emic
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description of behavior or a belief in terms meaningful (consciously or unconsciously) to the actor;
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etic
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description of a behavior or belief by an observer, in terms that can be applied to other cultures
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fraternal polyandry
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form of polyandry in which two or more brothers share one wife
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malinowski
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– one of the most important 20th-century anthropologists – established him as one of the most important anthropologists in Europe of that time. *Argonauts of the Western Pacific
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cultural relativity
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It states that what is right or wrong is an evolved idea that is relative to culture. That is two distinct cultures may have entirely different approaches to a certain moral issue.
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ethnocentrism
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judging another culture solely by the values and standards of one’s own culture
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potlatch
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a gift-giving festival and primary economic system practiced by indigenous peoples of the Pacific Northwest Coast of Canada and United States.
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what do gifts mean?
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It is the creation and maintenance of relationships, which necessarily implies reciprocity,that is the primary purpose of gift-giving in most societies and in most contexts. The exchange of goods, ideas, people and cultures has enabled us to survive and flourish. The contribution of anthropology to the study of exchange mechanisms has been to treat them as part of a wider cultural system
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characteristics of mariage
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importance of kinship to anthropology
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Kinship is important to anthropology because anthropology is the study of human behavior and human behavior is variable. However, much of our behavior is determined by survival success for ourselves and our kin. Kin strategies vs. other strategies is important in anthropology and each subfield has a different take on them. But kinship is a small part of anthropology.
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Kinship
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A society’s system of classifying and relating to relatives and forming families – Regulates production,consumption,and distribution – Shapes children’s personality development
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Bilateral Kinship
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Traces kinship from both parents equally
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Unilineal Kinship
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Recognizes descent only through one parent.
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Family
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Variation on \”blood\” behavior sharing fictive relations
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Nuclear Family
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Dad, Mom, 2 children: boy and girl *The average American stereotype*
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Marriage
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– creating relationships – \”Marriage\” means the union of a man and a woman to the exclusion of all others, voluntarily entered into for life – Characteristics *Not all forms of marriage involve sexual relations (or love) * There are many ways people define it because it is socially constructed. * The more or less stable union, usually between two people, who may be, but are not necessarily, co-residential, sexually involved, or procreative with each other.so… 1. How marriage is defined depends on the society 2. No \”universal\” form of marriage 3. Definitions of marriage are often grounded within moral beliefs of that society
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Exogamy
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social arrangement where marriage is allowed only outside of a social group. – Also appearance and preference (attractiveness) are important
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Endogamy
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practice of marrying within a specific ethnic group, class, or social group, rejecting others on such basis as being unsuitable for marriage
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Dowry
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Transfer of goods from bride’s family to the new couple
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Brideprice/Bridewealth:
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Transfer of goods/money from grooms family to brides family.
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Franz Boaz
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anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the \”Father of American Anthropology
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Religion
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The beliefs and behaviors related to supernatural being(s) and forces
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Animatism:
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An impersonal power (Manna
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Animism:
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Souls/Spirits exist in animals
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Magic
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Supernatural techniques intended to accomplish specific aims
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Tylor
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Need to explain the difference between living and dead
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Durkheim:
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To maintain social continuity and cohesion
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Marx:
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\”Opiate\” for the masses
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Geertz:
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Systems of Meaning. A model for and of life
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Why do myths exist
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Express core beliefs Deal with contradictions Transmit information

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