Anth quizzes website ones

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Human beings depend on culture for survival.
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True
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Physical anthropology includes the study of linguistic variation as it relates toclimate.
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false
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Physical anthropologists assisted with the identification of victims at New York’s World Trade Center after 9/11.
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true
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Morphology refers to physical shape and appearance.
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True
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Observations of living primates inform our efforts to understand ourevolutionary past.
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true
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Darwin’s observation that bipedalism frees the hand to hold objects led him to hypothesize that tool use was an important selective pressure onbipedalism.
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True
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A recent news article reports on findings from a dig in Mesopotamia. Theresearchers report that skeletal populations indicate a decline in stature andlikely overall health at this period in time. This reminds you of another studyyou have read about, the populations of St. Catherines Island. What couldbe the reasons for the changes in skeletons?
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Health and stature declined with the adoption of agriculture
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Archaeology is:
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the study of the behavior and material culture of pasthuman societies
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Physical anthropology
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relies on the scientific method
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The Scientific Method
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involves empirical data collection and hypothesis testing
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the hypothesis
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is an attempt to explain observations and predict futurescientific results.
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Forensic anthropology differs from biocultural anthropology in which of thefollowing ways?
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applies anthropological techniques to modern crimescenes and disasters
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How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
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It examines the interaction between genetics and culturein shaping human biology
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Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because
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it was the first evolutionary development that clearlydistinguished us from other animals
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How is a theory different from a hypothesis?
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A theory is an explanation relying on careful examinationand testing of evidence
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how is culture defined?
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Culture is a learned behavior transmitted from person toperson.
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Franz Boas
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united within American anthropology the study of culture, language, and biology.
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Chimpanzees in the wild have been observed to do all of the followingEXCEPT
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teach their offspring how to flake stone tools.
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Charles Darwin
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was an English naturalist in the 1800s.
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You spend a year of your life living with and studying crab fishermen. At theend of this time you document everything that you have learned. This iscalled a(n):
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ethnography
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Physical anthropologists might examine
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all of the above
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Organisms classified in two different biological orders can still belong to the same genus
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False
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Genetic drift is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations.
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True
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Mendel’s discrete units responsible for the characteristics in his pea plants are now known as chromosomes
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False
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Natural selection works on preexisting variation in a population.
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True
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Darwin’s theory of evolution drew from all of the following scientific disciplines EXCEPT
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genetics
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Alfred Wallace was
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an English naturalist who arrived at many of the sameconclusions as Darwin.
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carolus Linnaeus
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developed a classification system for plants and animals.
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The idea of catastrophism is attributed to:
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Georges Cuvier
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The idea that geologic processes operating today are the same as those that happened in the past is
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uniformitarianism
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The English demographer whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin’s thinking was
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Thomas Malthus
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Lamarck proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as
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Inheritance of acquired characteristics
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The physical expression of an organism’s genetic constitution is called the
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Phenotype
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Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are
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alleles
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The only possible source of new genetic material is
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Mutations
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In 1962, Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize for their 1953 discovery that the structure of theDNA molecule was
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A double helix
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Recessive alleles for a given trait will be expressed if they are inherited:
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From both parents
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The scientist who coined the name Homo sapiens for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomicgroup he called primates was
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carolus Linnaeus
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All of the following are formal taxonomic categories EXCEPT
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population
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The Human Genome Project is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease?
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Cystic fibrosis
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The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was
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Gregor mendel
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DNA replication takes place only during the production of new gametes
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False
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Most human nuclear DNA is coded to produce proteins
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False
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In order for traits to respond to natural selection, they must be heritable
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true
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All mammals have the same number of chromosomes
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False
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Hemoglobin is an amino acid
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False
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Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT
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sex cells
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The following are complementary bases in DNA
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adenine and thymine
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Gametes are
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Haploids
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Down Syndrome can occur
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because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome
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Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
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applies to genes on different chromosomes
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Proteins consist of
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chains of amino acids
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Transcription
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Occurs in the nucleus
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RNA differs from DNA in that it uses
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uracil instead of thymine
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Meiosis results in the production of
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four gametes
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An individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the followingexcept
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Type AB blood
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Individuals whose blood type is A and carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have agenotype of
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AO
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The presence of a recessive allele
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is usually masked in the phenotype
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The expression of polygenic traits
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is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction withenvironmental factors
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DNA
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Directs cellular functions
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Chromosome number is reduced during
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Meiosis
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Genetic drift is the force of evolution that is most powerful when acting on very large populations
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False
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Reproductive isolation is key to the development of individual species
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True
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Sickle-cell anemia is the result of a single-point mutation on chromosome 11
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True
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The effects of gene flow have decreased from 10,000 years ago to the present
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False
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The inability to taste PTC indicates a homozygous recessive genotype.
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True
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Malaria is caused by
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bites from infected mosquitoes
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Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes
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no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, or natural selection
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“Fitness,” in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual’s
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Reproductive success
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The substitution of one DNA base for another due to a mistake during replication is called a
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Point Mutation
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The ABO and MN blood type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current Americanand German populations due to
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Genetic Drift
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Mutations to which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
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Sex cells (gametes)
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Demes in which marriage and reproduction take place from within the groups are called
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endogamous
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A point mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid coded for is said to be a
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synonymous mutation
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The best-documented case of industrial melanism involves
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peppered moths
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The mutation known as trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonlyknown as
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Down Syndrom
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Functional adaptations in humans during their lifetimes are usually associated with environmentalconditions
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True
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Vasodilation is the expansion of blood vessels near the body’s surface in response to excessive cold
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False
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Loss of body hair during human evolution may have resulted from thermoregulatory adaptation to sweatingin hot climates.
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True
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C. Loring Brace argued that the race concept
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can be traced to the Renaissance, when seafaringtravelers observed differences between people fromdistant lands
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senecence is
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after the childbearing years
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DNA
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schedules growth, but environment and events influenceactual development
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Most neonatal deaths in the U.S. are caused by
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Low birth weight
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Low birth weight can result from a mother’s
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All of the above
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Infancy ends
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at 36 months
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Human brain growth is completed by age
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Six
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Puberty is marked by
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menarche in girls
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When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses
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full adult height is attained
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Osteoporosis is
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a main cause of hip fractures in older women
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Ethnographic evidence from around the world shows that postmenopausal women do all of the followingEXCEPT
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not live very long
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The strength and mass of bone
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vary with an individual’s level of physical activity
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Exercise improves physical fitness by contributing to all of the following EXCEPT
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increased cholesterol
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Functional adaptations to high altitude include all of the following EXCEPT
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smaller diameter of blood vessels
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Dark skin, a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples, is likely a response to ultravioletradiation because UV radiation can cause
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Skin Cancer
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Osteomalacia is caused by
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insufficient amount of vitamin D
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Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection in that Tibetan women:
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with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had moresurviving children
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Sagittal crests are pronounced in some primates with highly developed masticatory muscles.
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True
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Suspensory primates generally have longer legs than arms
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False
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Grooming relationships reinforce social structures and cement social bonds
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True
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Large upper canines in male primates are used primarily for capturing vertebrate prey
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False
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Male chimpanzees’ hunting success is greater when they hunt in groups
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True
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Unlike apes, monkeys
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have limbs (arms and legs) of relatively equal length
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The presence of five digits on hands and feet is
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a primitive mammalian trait, retained in most primates
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Living lemurs are found only in
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Madagascar
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Which of the following are prosimians?
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Lemurs
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The two suborders of primates are:
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prosimians and anthropoids.
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Jane Goodall was first to document:
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All of the above
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Primate females
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give birth to fewer offspring than do many othermammals.
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All of the anthropoids live in social groups EXCEPT:
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orangutans.
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Monogamy is characteristic of:
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Gibbons
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Altruistic behaviors include all the following EXCEPT
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dominance behavior
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The typical dental formulas of lorises and lemurs is
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2 / 1 / 3 / 3
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The typical catarrhine dental formula is
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2 / 1 / 2 / 3
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The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:
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chimpanzees
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Grooming relationships reinforce social structures and cement social bonds
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True
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Male chimpanzees’ hunting success is greater when they hunt in groups.
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True
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Altruistic behavior occurs when both individuals benefit from the behavior
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False
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Humans are the only primates known to use material culture to access foodresources
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False
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Jane Goodall was the first to document
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All of the above
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Sexual dimorphism in canine size:
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is greater in societies where males compete
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Monogamy is characteristic of
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Gibbons
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Altruistic behaviors include all of the following EXCEPT
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Dominance behavior
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Nocturnal primates communicate through
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vocalizations
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Chimpanzee hunting has been used as a model for the origins of humanhunting because
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All of the above
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Harry Harlow’s experiments on rhesus monkeys showed that infants placed with artificial surrogate mothers:
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lacked basic social skills as adults
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Chimpanzees taught by humans to make simple stone tools
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passed this new behavior to relatives
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In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers havetaughtchimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, thesechimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the sameskill. This could be considered
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All of the above
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The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.
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true
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Rapid burial after death usually impedes fossilization
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False
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Historically speaking, scientists were able to provide relative ages for fossils before they were able toprovide numerical ages
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True
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The chemical signature of volcanic ash layers can be used to correlate sites across vast regions
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True
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The English surveyor who developed the technique of stratigraphic correlation between regions was:
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william Smith
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The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is:
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taphonomy
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The theory that species persist for long periods and then undergo rapid spurts of evolutionary change is:
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punctuated equilibrium.
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If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil speciesB, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of:
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Superstition
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One of the only fossil sites in the world that preserves a great deal of evidence for anthropoid evolutionduring the Eocene and Oligocene epochs is
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Fayum, Egypt
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Prior to the invention of absolute dating techniques, one of the chemical dating methods useful forestablishing the relative age of fossils from a single site was
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fluorine dating
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Biostratigraphic dating relies on:
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the first and last appearances of species in the fossilrecord
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The absolute dating method that involves counting the annual rings visible in the cross-section of a tree iscalled
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dendrochronology
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With a half-life of 5,730 years, 14 C dating is useful for dating carbon-bearing objects as far back as
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50,000 years ago
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Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from anearly hominid site in eastern Africa?
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40 K/ 40 Ar dating
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What do geologists call the oldest portion of Earth’s history, accounting for roughly 87% of that history?
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Precambrian eon
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A diagram (family tree) that proposes hypothetical ancestor-descendant relationships between species is a:
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phylogeny
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Which of the following has the greatest likelihood of becoming fossilized?
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Teeth
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The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the
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Half-life
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The absolute dating technique that emerged as a result of research into constructing the atomic bombduring World War II is:
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14 C dating
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The dating technique in which proteins are examined under high magnification using polarized light is
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amino-acid racemization dating

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