Anth quizzes website ones

Human beings depend on culture for survival.

Physical anthropology includes the study of linguistic variation as it relates toclimate.

Physical anthropologists assisted with the identification of victims at New
York’s World Trade Center after 9/11.

Morphology refers to physical shape and appearance.

Observations of living primates inform our efforts to understand ourevolutionary past.

Darwin’s observation that bipedalism frees the hand to hold objects led him
to hypothesize that tool use was an important selective pressure onbipedalism.

A recent news article reports on findings from a dig in Mesopotamia. Theresearchers report that skeletal populations indicate a decline in stature andlikely overall health at this period in time. This reminds you of another studyyou have read about, the populations of St. Catherines Island. What couldbe the reasons for the changes in skeletons?
Health and stature declined with the adoption of agriculture

Archaeology is:
the study of the behavior and material culture of pasthuman societies

Physical anthropology
relies on the scientific method

The Scientific Method
involves empirical data collection and hypothesis testing

the hypothesis
is an attempt to explain observations and predict futurescientific results.

Forensic anthropology differs from biocultural anthropology in which of thefollowing ways?
applies anthropological techniques to modern crimescenes and disasters

How is biocultural anthropology different from cultural anthropology?
It examines the interaction between genetics and culturein shaping human biology

Bipedalism is considered one of the hallmarks of hominid evolution because
it was the first evolutionary development that clearlydistinguished us from other animals

How is a theory different from a hypothesis?
A theory is an explanation relying on careful examinationand testing of evidence

how is culture defined?
Culture is a learned behavior transmitted from person toperson.

Franz Boas
united within American anthropology the study of culture, language, and biology.

Chimpanzees in the wild have been observed to do all of the followingEXCEPT
teach their offspring how to flake stone tools.

Charles Darwin
was an English naturalist in the 1800s.

You spend a year of your life living with and studying crab fishermen. At theend of this time you document everything that you have learned. This iscalled a(n):

Physical anthropologists might examine
all of the above

Organisms classified in two different biological orders can still belong to the same genus

Genetic drift is most powerful as an evolutionary cause when operating on small populations.

Mendel’s discrete units responsible for the characteristics in his pea plants are now known as chromosomes

Natural selection works on preexisting variation in a population.

Darwin’s theory of evolution drew from all of the following scientific disciplines EXCEPT

Alfred Wallace was
an English naturalist who arrived at many of the sameconclusions as Darwin.

carolus Linnaeus
developed a classification system for plants and animals.

The idea of catastrophism is attributed to:
Georges Cuvier

The idea that geologic processes operating today are the same as those that happened in the past is

The English demographer
whose work on population growth greatly influenced Darwin’s thinking was
Thomas Malthus

Lamarck proposed an erroneous evolutionary mechanism known today as
Inheritance of acquired characteristics

The physical expression of an organism’s genetic constitution is called the

Different versions, or subunits, of the same gene are

The only possible source of new genetic material is

In 1962, Watson and Crick were awarded the Nobel Prize for their 1953 discovery that the structure of theDNA molecule was
A double helix

Recessive alleles for a given trait will be expressed if they are inherited:
From both parents

The scientist who coined the name
Homo sapiens
for human beings and placed them in a higher taxonomicgroup he called primates was
carolus Linnaeus

All of the following are formal taxonomic categories EXCEPT

The Human Genome Project is most likely to contribute to an understanding of which disease?
Cystic fibrosis

The scientist whose work provided the foundation for later understandings of genetics was
Gregor mendel

DNA replication takes place only during the production of new gametes

Most human nuclear DNA is coded to produce proteins

In order for traits to respond to natural selection, they must be heritable

All mammals have the same number of chromosomes

Hemoglobin is an amino acid

Somatic cells include all of the following EXCEPT
sex cells

The following are complementary bases in DNA
adenine and thymine

Gametes are

Down Syndrome can occur
because of nondisjunction, which yields an extra chromosome

Mendel’s Law of Independent Assortment
applies to genes on different chromosomes

Proteins consist of
chains of amino acids

Occurs in the nucleus

RNA differs from DNA in that it uses
uracil instead of thymine

Meiosis results in the production of
four gametes

An individual that is homozygous at the locus that determines ABO blood type may have any of the followingexcept
Type AB blood

Individuals whose blood type is A and carry both dominant and recessive genes at this locus have agenotype of

The presence of a recessive allele
is usually masked in the phenotype

The expression of polygenic traits
is determined by genes at several loci in conjunction withenvironmental factors

Directs cellular functions

Chromosome number is reduced during

Genetic drift is the force of evolution that is most powerful when acting on very large populations

Reproductive isolation is key to the development of individual species

Sickle-cell anemia is the result of a single-point mutation on chromosome 11

The effects of gene flow have decreased from 10,000 years ago to the present

The inability to taste PTC indicates a homozygous recessive genotype.

Malaria is caused by
bites from infected mosquitoes

Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium assumes
no gene flow, mutation, genetic drift, or natural selection

“Fitness,” in an evolutionary sense, refers to an individual’s
Reproductive success

The substitution of one DNA base for another due to a mistake during replication is called a
Point Mutation

The ABO and MN blood type frequencies of the Dunkers differ significantly from those of current Americanand German populations due to
Genetic Drift

Mutations to which cells are most likely to have significant evolutionary consequences?
Sex cells (gametes)

Demes in which marriage and reproduction take place from within the groups are called

A point mutation that does not result in a change to the amino acid coded for is said to be a
synonymous mutation

The best-documented case of industrial melanism involves
peppered moths

The mutation known as trisomy 21, in which an extra copy of chromosome 21 is present, is more commonlyknown as
Down Syndrom

Functional adaptations in humans during their lifetimes are usually associated with environmentalconditions

Vasodilation is the expansion of blood vessels near the body’s surface in response to excessive cold

Loss of body hair during human evolution may have resulted from thermoregulatory adaptation to sweatingin hot climates.

C. Loring Brace argued that the race concept
can be traced to the Renaissance, when seafaringtravelers observed differences between people fromdistant lands

senecence is
after the childbearing years

schedules growth, but environment and events influenceactual development

Most neonatal deaths in the U.S. are caused by
Low birth weight

Low birth weight can result from a mother’s
All of the above

Infancy ends
at 36 months

Human brain growth is completed by age

Puberty is marked by
menarche in girls

When epiphyses fuse to the diaphyses
full adult height is attained

Osteoporosis is
a main cause of hip fractures in older women

Ethnographic evidence from around the world shows that postmenopausal women do all of the followingEXCEPT
not live very long

The strength and mass of bone
vary with an individual’s level of physical activity

Exercise improves physical fitness by contributing to all of the following EXCEPT
increased cholesterol

Functional adaptations to high altitude include all of the following EXCEPT
smaller diameter of blood vessels

Dark skin, a result of increased melanin production in equatorial peoples, is likely a response to ultravioletradiation because UV radiation can cause
Skin Cancer

Osteomalacia is caused by
insufficient amount of vitamin D

Hypoxia has been shown to be an agent of natural selection in that Tibetan women:
with alleles for high oxygen saturation in their hemoglobin had moresurviving children

Sagittal crests are pronounced in some primates with highly developed masticatory muscles.

Suspensory primates generally have longer legs than arms

Grooming relationships reinforce social structures and cement social bonds

Large upper canines in male primates are used primarily for capturing vertebrate prey

Male chimpanzees’ hunting success is greater when they hunt in groups

Unlike apes, monkeys
have limbs (arms and legs) of relatively equal length

The presence of five digits on hands and feet is
a primitive mammalian trait, retained in most primates

Living lemurs are found only in

Which of the following are prosimians?

The two suborders of primates are:
prosimians and anthropoids.

Jane Goodall was first to document:
All of the above

Primate females
give birth to fewer offspring than do many othermammals.

All of the anthropoids live in social groups EXCEPT:

Monogamy is characteristic of:

Altruistic behaviors include all the following EXCEPT
dominance behavior

The typical dental formulas of lorises and lemurs is
2 / 1 / 3 / 3

The typical catarrhine dental formula is
2 / 1 / 2 / 3

The Y-5 molar morphology is present in:

Grooming relationships reinforce social structures and cement social bonds

Male chimpanzees’
hunting success is greater when they hunt in groups.

Altruistic behavior occurs when both individuals benefit from the behavior

Humans are the only primates known to use material culture to access foodresources

Jane Goodall was the first to document
All of the above

Sexual dimorphism in canine size:
is greater in societies where males compete

Monogamy is characteristic of

Altruistic behaviors include all of the following EXCEPT
Dominance behavior

Nocturnal primates communicate through

Chimpanzee hunting has been used as a model for the origins of humanhunting because
All of the above

Harry Harlow’s experiments on rhesus monkeys showed that infants placed
with artificial surrogate mothers:
lacked basic social skills as adults

Chimpanzees taught by humans to make simple stone tools
passed this new behavior to relatives

In studies of primate cognition and tool use, researchers havetaughtchimpanzees to crack open nuts with stones. Later in life, thesechimpanzees have taught other young chimpanzees and offspring the sameskill. This could be considered
All of the above

The Earth is about 4.6 billion years old.

Rapid burial after death usually impedes fossilization

Historically speaking, scientists were able to provide relative ages for fossils before they were able toprovide numerical ages

The chemical signature of volcanic ash layers can be used to correlate sites across vast regions

The English surveyor who developed the technique of stratigraphic correlation between regions was:
william Smith

The study of what happens to an organism’s remains after death is:

The theory that species persist for long periods and then undergo rapid spurts of evolutionary change is:
punctuated equilibrium.

If fossil species A is consistently recovered from geological deposits beneath layers containing fossil speciesB, then A is considered older than B. This relative dating technique is based on the principle of:

One of the only fossil sites in the world that preserves a great deal of evidence for anthropoid evolutionduring the Eocene and Oligocene epochs is
Fayum, Egypt

Prior to the invention of absolute dating techniques, one of the chemical dating methods useful forestablishing the relative age of fossils from a single site was
fluorine dating

Biostratigraphic dating relies on:
the first and last appearances of species in the fossilrecord

The absolute dating method that involves counting the annual rings visible in the cross-section of a tree iscalled

With a half-life of 5,730 years,
C dating is useful for dating carbon-bearing objects as far back as
50,000 years ago

Which dating method would be most appropriate for establishing the age of a volcanic ash layer from anearly hominid site in eastern Africa?
Ar dating

What do geologists call the oldest portion of Earth’s history, accounting for roughly 87% of that history?
Precambrian eon

A diagram (family tree) that proposes hypothetical ancestor-descendant relationships between species is a:

Which of the following has the greatest likelihood of becoming fossilized?

The time it takes for 50% of an unstable isotope to decay to a stable form is called the

The absolute dating technique that emerged as a result of research into constructing the atomic bombduring World War II is:
C dating

The dating technique in which proteins are examined under high magnification using polarized light is
amino-acid racemization dating