ANHB2217 – Introduction to Neurochemistry

question

What is an alternative name for neurotransmitter?
answer

Neuromodulator
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What are the 2 speeds/mechanisms that a synaptic transmission can occur?
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-Rapid + Point-to-point -Slow + Diffusion
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What are the 3 types of Neurotransmitter/Neuromodulators and examples?
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1. Amino Acids – Glutamte, GABA, Glycerine 2. Monoamines – ACh, Serotonin, Dopamine, Noradrenaline, Adrenaline 3. Neuropeptides – Substance P, Enkephalins, Endorphins, Somatostatic, Cholecystokinn (CCK) etc
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List 3 examples of Amino Acid Neurotransmitters
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-Glutamate -GABA (y-aminobutyric acid) -Glycine
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List 5 examples of Monoamine Neurotransmission
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-ACh -Serotonin -Dopamine -Noradrenalin -Adrenalin
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List 7 examples of Neuropeptide Neurotransmitters
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-Substance P -Enkephalins -Endorphins -Somatistatin -Cholecystokinin (CCK) -Vasoactive Polypeptide (VIP) -Neuropeptide Y
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What are the 2 types of Neurotransmitter Synapses?
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1. Ionotropic 2. Metabotropic
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What types of proteins are found in Ionotropic transmission?
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Transmitter gated ion channels
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Which of the 2 types of synapses occurs fast/rapidly? Mechanism?
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Ionotropic – point-to-point
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What type of proteins are found in Metabotropic transmission?
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Active G-proteins + Second messengers
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Which of the 2 types of synapses occur slowly? Mechanism?
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Metabotropic – diffusion
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What effect does the rapid speed of Ionotropic transmission have?
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Fast time course
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What effect does the slow speed of Metabotropic transmission have?
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Long acting effect seen which often involve metabotropic receptors
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Which of the 2 types of synapses relay Excitatory and Inhibitory post-synaptic potential?
answer

Ionotropic transmission
question

List 5 sites of Drug Action (preventing AP relay along a synapse)
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1. Synthesis (neurotransmitter) 2. Presence and release (of neurotransmitter) from presynaptic site 3. Binding (of neurotransmitter) to post-synaptic receptor 4. Effect the change that occurs in the post-synaptic cell 5. Inactivation of neurotransmitter
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ASTROCYTES
answer

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BRAIN DISTRIBUTION AND RELATION TO ANATOMICAL PATHWAYS
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List 4 topic regarding changes to neurotransmitters seen in aging and disease
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1. Changes in expression of neurotransmitter and receptors with age 2. Changes associated with some psychiatric disorders 3. Changes associated with neurodegenerative diseases like Alzheimer’s/Parkinson’s 4. Effect of drugs (recreational vs therapeutic)
question

List some important structures found in the human Cholinergic Pathway
answer

-NUCLEUS BASALIS -SEPTAL NUCLEI -Extenal capsule -Cigulate bundle -Hippocampic

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