Anatomy & Physiology Unit 1 Study Guide

11 body systems
nervous, muscle, lymphatic, urinary, endocrine, digestive, circulatory, respiratory, integumentary, skeletal, reproductive

frontal
forehead

ocular
eyes

cranial
ptop of head

buccal
cheek

oral
mouth

cervical
neck

thoracic
chest

brachial
upper arm

antecubital
front of elbow

antebrachial
back of elbow

carpal
wrist

pollex
thumb

palmar
palm

phalangeal
fingers

abdominal
abs

umbilical
belly button

pelvic
hips

pubic
genitals

femoral
upper leg

patellar
front of knee cap

crural
shin

tarsal
ankle

phalangeal
toes

hallux
big toe

pedal
top of feet

nasal
nose

dorsal
upper back

olecranal
back of elbow

lumbar
lower back

gluteal
butt

popliteal
back of knee

sural
calf

calcaneal
heel

plantar
bottom of foot

medial
inside

lateral
outside

proximal
closer to the joint

distal
further from the joint

anterior or ventral
front of body

posterior or dorsal
back of the body

superior
closer to the top of the body

inferior
closer to the bottom of the body

cranial or cephalic
the head

caudal
the tail

transverse plane
cross section; divides body into superior and inferior portions

frontal plane
coronal plane; divides body into anterior and posterior portions, extends laterally

sagittal plane
runs along the long axis of the body but it extends anteriorly and posteriorly

levels of organization
atoms, molecules, cells, tissue, organs, organ systems, organism

positive feedback
the initial stimulus produces a response that reinforces te stimulus

negative feedback
a variation outside normal limits triggers an automatic response that corrects the situation

anatomy
the study of internal and external structure and the physical relationships between body parts

physiology
the study of how living organsims perform their living functions

sign
is an objectively or observable or measurable physical indication of a disease such as rash, swelling, or fever

symptom
is a subjective thing that a person experiences and describes but hat aren’t otherwise detectable or measurable such as pain, nausea, and anxiety

homeostasis
means “unchanging and standing” refers to the existence of stable internal environment