Anatomy & Physiology 2111-Chapter 1-Darton (Exam 1)
observing the structure of the interior of the heart
studying a model of the kidney
examining the surface of a bone
viewing muscle tissue through a microscope
determining normal blood sugar levels for 20 year old students
the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures
4. Organ system
Arrange the structures in the correct order from smallest to largest:
1. An increase in blood pressure activates mechanisms that decrease blood pressure.
2.Increased amounts of a hormone in the blood cause a decrease in the secretion of that hormone.
3.Increased carbon dioxide in the blood increases breathing rate, which decreases carbon dioxide in the blood.
4.Increased amounts of fluid in the blood result in increased quantities of urine, which decreases fluid content of the blood.
5. Increased stretch of the uterus causes it to contract, which further increases stretch.
– -Negative feedback makes any deviation from a normal value larger.
-Negative feedback occurs when the uterus contracts during birth.
-Negative feedback is a very unusual control mechanism in the human body.
-Negative feedback will usually result in illness or other disturbance of normal systems.
blood calcium levels increase.
blood calcium levels decrease.
blood calcium levels are stable.
blood calcium levels are elevated.
none of the above.
a decrease in heart rate
an increase in the respiratory rate
an increase in physical activity
As blood pressure falls, blood flow to cardiac (heart) muscle decreases.
As the mean blood pressure gradually increases in aging people, the blood vessel walls become thinner.
Men working in a hot environment drink large quantities of water, and their urine volume increases.
As body temperature decreases blood vessels in the periphery dilate.
Elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion (insulin causes cells to take up glucose) to increase.
as body temperature rises, sweating occurs to cool the body
when a person drinks large quantities of water, urine output decreases to raise blood volume
elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion to decline
decreases in blood pressure cause a corresponding decrease in heart rate
as blood pressure falls, blood flow to the heart decreases
Pathogens may invade the body and upset homeostasis. This is known as infection.
When normal regulatory control mechanisms fail, this causes an unbalance in the body’s environment. This can occur in the case of cancer which is linked to genes that would ordinarily control rates of cell division, but due to abnormalities have stopped functioning correctly. Without these regulations the cells multiply rapidly leading to unmaintained homeostasis.
Degenerative changes occur as the body ages. This causes body systems to be less adaptable and less efficient. If aged patients are exposed to stresses that their weakened systems cannot tolerate, disease results.
Environmental hazards, toxins and traumas affect homeostasis. All three conditions can damage and impair organs. This can lead to fatality if this is left untreated.
Disease can result from a body not receiving adequate nutrition. Proper nutrition is essential for maintain homeostasis within the body.
In the posterior view of anatomical position the body would be in the same position as described in the anterior view except that you would see the body from the back. The backs of the hands would be seen from this position.
A person lying face up in the anatomical position is described as supine.
A person lying face down in the anatomical position is described as prone.
A universal understanding of anatomical position is important because it provides a standard for medical professionals and scientists to go by when mapping anatomical structures, defining areas of the body for study, diagnosing medical issues with the body and describing the body to other professionals in these fields. A universal understanding of anatomical position ensures that there is no confusion in communication between medical and science professionals.
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