Anatomy & Physiology 2111-Chapter 1-Darton (Exam 1)

What must a healthcare practitioner do when a patient presents with signs and symptoms that suggest several diseases?
A healthcare practitioner must ask questions and collect information to determine the source of the problem since different diseases may present similar signs and symptoms. First, a practitioner would use the patient’s history and a physical examination to look for clues to the illness plaguing the patient. This may be enough for a physician to assign a diagnosis, but lab testing and imaging studies are often needed to confirm the diagnosis or to collect further data if a diagnosis is unconfirmed.

What is the key concept that should be learned from this reading selection? Quiz 1-8
All diagnostic procedures presuppose an understanding of the normal structure and function of the human body. In other words, a healthcare practitioner needs to have a working knowledge of normal functional anatomy and physiology of the human body BEFORE they can try to identify dysfunction in the body. You have to know normal before you can recognize abnormal. Diagnosis of patients relies heavily on the study of what is normal and abnormal in the body particularly in the field of study of pathology and pathophysiology before diagnosis decisions can be made.

The ability of the organism to form new cells or to form a new whole organism describes which characteristic of life?
reproduction

The ability of the organism or a part of the organism to specialize in order to perform its role more efficiently describes which characteristic of life?
differentiation

The ability to sense change and make adjustments to maintain life describes which characteristic of life?
responsiveness

All activities promoted by the muscular system, both internal and external describes which characteristic of life?
movement

The ability of the whole organism, or a part of it, to increase in size describes which characteristic of life?
growth

The ability to use energy to maintain the functions necessary to maintain life describes which characteristic of life?
metabolism

The ability of the parts of an organism to interact, performing specific functions for the good of the organism describes which characteristic of life?
organization

The study of the function of a cell is called
cell physiology

X-rays, ultrasound, MRI, and other technologies used to create pictures of internal structures are examples of
anatomical imaging

The study of the changes in the body from conception to physical maturity is called
developmental anatomy

The study of the body’s organization that considers the heart, blood and all of the associated blood vessels as a unit is called
systemic anatomy

The study of the body’s organization by areas (the approach used in most medical schools) is called
regional anatomy

The study of the effects of disease on organs and organ systems of the body is called
pathology

The study of how organs function is called
systemic or organ physiology

The study of external features, such as bony projections that serve as landmarks to locate deeper structures is called
surface anatomy

Which of the following activities would represent a physiological study?

observing the structure of the interior of the heart
studying a model of the kidney
examining the surface of a bone
viewing muscle tissue through a microscope
determining normal blood sugar levels for 20 year old students

determining normal blood sugar levels for 20 year old students

Microscopic examination of a frozen tissue specimen is an application of which of the following disciplines?
histology

Visual inspection of the appearance of the liver and gallbladder during surgery is associated with which of the following?
gross anatomy

Which subdivision of anatomy involves the study of organs that function together?
systemic anatomy

Anatomy is
the study of structure

Systemic anatomy is
the study of the body by systems

Cytology is
the study of the structural features of cells

Surface anatomy is
the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures

Histology is
the study of tissues
the study of the external form of the body and its relation to deeper structures

Regional anatomy is
the study of the body’s organization by areas

A cell is
the smallest unit of life.

A group of cells with similar structure and function describes
tissue

An organ is
a structure composed of two or more tissues that perform a common function.

Consider the following structural levels: chemical, organ, tissue, cell, and organ system. Which level encompasses the other four?
organ system

A tissue is
a group of cells with similar structure and function.

Given these structures:
1. Cell
2. Organ
3. Chemical
4. Organ system
5. Organism
6. Tissue

Arrange the structures in the correct order from smallest to largest:

Chemical, Cell, Tissue, Organ, Organ System, Organism

An organ system is
a group of organs, working together to perform a common functions.

Which of these organ systems is involved in transporting gases in the body?
cardiovascular system

The system of the body that consists of the heart, blood vessels, and blood is the
cardiovascular system

The organ system that maintains tissue fluid balance, filters foreign material from blood and lymph, absorbs fats from the digestive tract, and combats disease is the
lymphatic system

The organ system that consists of glands such as the pituitary and thyroid glands and is a major regulatory system is the
endocrine system

The organ system that consists of the skin, hair, and nails, and protects the body and prevents water loss is the
integumentary system

Homeostasis is the condition produced by
the tendency for change in a body parameter to be counteracted as soon as the body parameter goes past its normal value.

Which of these is an example of a positive-feedback mechanism?

1. An increase in blood pressure activates mechanisms that decrease blood pressure.
2.Increased amounts of a hormone in the blood cause a decrease in the secretion of that hormone.
3.Increased carbon dioxide in the blood increases breathing rate, which decreases carbon dioxide in the blood.
4.Increased amounts of fluid in the blood result in increased quantities of urine, which decreases fluid content of the blood.
5. Increased stretch of the uterus causes it to contract, which further increases stretch.

Increased stretch of the uterus causes it to contract, which further increases stretch.

Which of these statements is true of negative feedback?

– -Negative feedback makes any deviation from a normal value larger.
-Negative feedback occurs when the uterus contracts during birth.
-Negative feedback is a very unusual control mechanism in the human body.
-Negative feedback will usually result in illness or other disturbance of normal systems.

Negative feedback is important for maintaining homeostasis in the body.

A researcher discovered a new hormone that raises blood calcium levels. According to the principles of negative feedback, this hormone would be secreted when

blood calcium levels increase.
blood calcium levels decrease.
blood calcium levels are stable.
blood calcium levels are elevated.
none of the above.

blood calcium levels decrease

Homeostasis is defined as
the maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body

When a capillary is damaged, a platelet plug is formed. The process involves platelets sticking to each other. The more platelets that stick together, the more the plug attracts additional platelets and the larger the plug becomes. This is an example of
positive feedback

Negative feedback always functions to make any deviation from homeostasis
smaller

In a negative feedback mechanism, the response of the effector
reverses the original stimulus.

A researcher discovered a sensory receptor that detects decreasing oxygen concentrations in the blood. According to the principles of negative feedback, it is likely that stimulation of this sensory receptor will produce which of the following types of responses.

a decrease in heart rate

an increase in the respiratory rate

an increase in physical activity

unconsciousness

an increase in respiratory rate

Which of the following is the most consistent with homeostasis?

As blood pressure falls, blood flow to cardiac (heart) muscle decreases.

As the mean blood pressure gradually increases in aging people, the blood vessel walls become thinner.

Men working in a hot environment drink large quantities of water, and their urine volume increases.

As body temperature decreases blood vessels in the periphery dilate.

Elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion (insulin causes cells to take up glucose) to increase.

Elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion (insulin causes cells to take up glucose) to increase.

Which of the following is consistent with homeostasis?

as body temperature rises, sweating occurs to cool the body

when a person drinks large quantities of water, urine output decreases to raise blood volume

elevated blood glucose levels cause insulin secretion to decline

decreases in blood pressure cause a corresponding decrease in heart rate

as blood pressure falls, blood flow to the heart decreases

as body temperature rises, sweating occurs to cool the body

How do you acquire critical thinking, or logical analysis skills?
Critical thinking is a learned skill. This skill must follow rules that are intended to minimize the chances of error. The best way to acquire critical thinking, as with most learned skills, is to practice. Students of the sciences use the scientific method to practice, enhance, and execute this skill effectively.

How do form a hypothesis?
A student can form a hypothesis by observing a situation, identifying a pattern and forming an educated guess or hypothesis as to why that pattern exists and repeats itself. For a hypothesis to be considered valid it must meet three criteria. It must be testable, unbiased, and repeatable. If a hypothesis does not meet a three criteria then it can not be considered a valid hypothesis.

Discuss factors that influence the body’s ability to maintain homeostasis.
Maintaining homeostasis in the body depends on the status (or health) of the body’s physiological systems and the nature (or type) of stress that is imposed on the body. If the body’s mechanisms for coping with a stressor on the body and maintaining homeostasis fails, then physiological values shift and may drift outside of the normal range. When this occurs, these changes can affect other physiological systems with fatal results.

Discuss six factors that may result in disease.
Six factors that may result in disease are invading pathogens, inherited genetic conditions, loss of regulatory control mechanisms, degenerative changes, trauma/toxins/environmental hazards, and nutrition.
Pathogens may invade the body and upset homeostasis. This is known as infection.
When normal regulatory control mechanisms fail, this causes an unbalance in the body’s environment. This can occur in the case of cancer which is linked to genes that would ordinarily control rates of cell division, but due to abnormalities have stopped functioning correctly. Without these regulations the cells multiply rapidly leading to unmaintained homeostasis.
Degenerative changes occur as the body ages. This causes body systems to be less adaptable and less efficient. If aged patients are exposed to stresses that their weakened systems cannot tolerate, disease results.
Environmental hazards, toxins and traumas affect homeostasis. All three conditions can damage and impair organs. This can lead to fatality if this is left untreated.
Disease can result from a body not receiving adequate nutrition. Proper nutrition is essential for maintain homeostasis within the body.

Why must you learn all of this “normal” anatomy and physiology?
The study of normal anatomy and physiology is important to the diagnosis of disease because a clinician can not diagnose disease effectively without fully understanding normal anatomy and physiology. How would a clinician know if something were abnormal in a patient if they did not know what the normal constant was before examining a patient? In science it is necessary to establish a constant or baseline normal upon which to measure deviations or change. The study of normal anatomy and physiology is the beginning baseline for any clinician dealing with the human body. A clinician can not measure signs or symptoms without this knowledge. Without being able to observe basic changes in the anatomy and physiology of a patient, a clinician is unable to know which diagnostic tests to perform on a patient. This would lead to either failing to diagnose or misdiagnosing patients under the clinician’s care. Basically, a clinician can not perform their task of diagnosing disease without a thorough study and understanding of normal anatomy and physiology.

What is the “Scientific Method” and why is it important?
The scientific method is a system of advancing knowledge that beings by proposing a hypothesis to answer a question, and then testing that hypostasis with data collected through observation and experimentation. This method is at the core of all scientific thought, including medical diagnosis.

Describe anatomical position and state why it is important.
When the body is in anatomical position, the body is erect, the hands are at the sides with the palms facing forward and fingers unfurled, and the feet are together. In the anterior view of anatomical position the front of the body is facing forward. The head is facing directly forward, arms are by the side with palms facing outward. The legs are straightened with the knees facing directly forward (NOT rolling laterally or medially) and the feet are together in neutral position (NEITHER in plantar flexion or dorsiflexion).
In the posterior view of anatomical position the body would be in the same position as described in the anterior view except that you would see the body from the back. The backs of the hands would be seen from this position.
A person lying face up in the anatomical position is described as supine.
A person lying face down in the anatomical position is described as prone.

A universal understanding of anatomical position is important because it provides a standard for medical professionals and scientists to go by when mapping anatomical structures, defining areas of the body for study, diagnosing medical issues with the body and describing the body to other professionals in these fields. A universal understanding of anatomical position ensures that there is no confusion in communication between medical and science professionals.

Anterior
The front surface

Ventral
The belly surface (anterior in the human body)

Posterior
The back surface

Dorsal
The pack ( posterior in the human body)

Contralateral
On opposite sides

Ipsilateral
On same side

Cranial
Toward the head (also cephalic)

Cephalic
Toward the head(also cranial)

Superior
At a higher level (toward the head in the human body)

Caudal
Toward the tail (coccyx in the human body)

Inferior
At a lower level (toward the feet in the human body)

Medial
Toward the midline or midsagital plane

Lateral
Away from the midline or midsagital plane

Proximal
Nearest to attachment site

Distal
Farther from attachment

Superficial
At, near, or relatively close to the body surface

Deep
Toward the interior of the body, farther from the surface

Prone
To lie with the anterior surface down

Supine
To lie with the anterior surface facing up

Abdominal
Abdominal (front of trunk below diaphragm.

Acromial
Shoulder

Antebrachial
Forearm

Antecubital
Anterior elbow

Axillary
Armpit

Brachial
Arm (shoulder to elbow)

Buccal
Cheek

Calcaneal
Heel or foot

Carpal
Wrist

Cephalic
Head

Cervical
Neck

Cranium
Skull

Crurual
Front of leg from knee to ankle

Cubital
Elbow

Digits
Fingers or toes

Phalanges
Fingers or toes

Dorsal
Back

Facial
Face

Femoral
Thigh (pelvis to knee)

Frontal
Forehead

Gluteal
Buttock

Hallux
Great toe

Inguinal
Groin

Lumbar
Loin

Mammary
Breast

Manual
Hand

Mental
Chin

Nasal
Nose

Olecranal
Back (point) of the elbow

Oral
Mouth

Orbital
Eye socket (eye)

Ocular
Eye socket (eye)

Otic
Ear

Palmar
Palm of hand (wrist to fingers

Patellar
Kneecap

Pedal
Foot

Pelvic
Within the pelvis

Plantar
Sole of foot

Pollex
Thumb

Popliteal
Back of knee

Pubic
Pubis

Sural
Calf

Tarsal
Ankle

Thoracic
Chest or thorax

Umbilical
Navel

abdominopelvic
inferior to diaphragm: stomach, intestines, liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys, reproductive organs, urinary bladder

abdominal
inferior to diaphragm and superior to pelvis: stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys

cranial
within the skull:brain

dorsal
cranial and vertebral: brain and spinal cord

mediastinum
between pleural cavities: esophagus, trachea, thymus gland, pericardial sac, pericardial cavity, and heart

middle ear
within the temporal bones:ear ossicles

nasal
superior to oral cavity: nasal septum, conchae

oral
inferior to nasal cavity:tongue and teeth

orbital
anterior-superior skull: eyes

pelvic
within pelvis: reproductive organs, urinary bladder, and rectum

pericardial
mediastinum:heart

peritoneal
abdominal cavity:stomach, small intestine, large intestine, liver, gall bladder, spleen, pancreas, kidneys

pleural
lateral to mediastinum:lungs

spinal
within vertebrae:spinal cord

synovial
around movable joints:synovial fluid to reduce friction

thoracic
superior to diaphragm:esophagus, trachea, lungs, and heart

ventral
thoracic/abdominopelvic:abdominal and thoracic organs

vertebral
same as spinal: spinal cord

visceral
same as ventral cavity

retroperitoneal
location of an organ that is posterior to the parietal peritoneum

How many quadrants is the abdomen divided into in regional anatomy?
four

Quadrant:Lower Left
small intestine, descending colon, sigmoid colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs

Quadrant:Lower Right
small intestine, cecum, appendix, ascending colon, rectum, urinary bladder, reproductive organs

Quadrant:Upper Left
spleen, stomach, pancreas, small intestine, transverse colon, descending colon, left kidney

Quadrant: Upper Right
liver, gall bladder, stomach, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, right kidney

The abdominopelvic region can be divided into how many regions when more detail is required?
nine

Region:epigastric
liver, stomach, pancreas, transverse colon

Region:left hypochondriac
spleen, stomach, pancreas, left kidney, transverse colon

Region:left inguinal(iliac)
descending colon, sigmoid colon

Region:left lumbar (lateral abdominal)
small intestine, descending colon, left kidney

Region:right hypochondriac
liver, gall bladder, small intestine, ascending colon, transverse colon, right kidney

Region:right inguinal (lateral abdominal)
small intestine, appendix, cecum, ascending colon

Region:right lumbar
small intestine, ascending colon, right kidney

hypogastric(pubic)
small intestine, rectum, urinary bladder, rectum, reproductive organs

umbilical
small intestine, both kidneys

Body cavities and surfaces are lined with what type of tissue?
epithelium

How many types of epithelium are there?
four

Serous membranes
line cavities or cover organs that do not have any connection with the outside of the body. Named for the thin, watery fluid they secrete that lubricates various organs.

mesentery
double layered membrane attaching organs to abdominal wall

parietal pericardium
pericardial sac aroiund pericardial cavity

parietal peritoneum
lines abdominal cavity’s walls

parietal pleura
lines walls of pleural cavities

visceral pericardium
surface of heart

visceral peritoneum
surface of most abdominal organs

visceral pleura
surface of the lungs

Mucous membranes
line cavities that have connections with the outside of the body. They secrete mucus that protects underlying tissues.

Plane
imaginary flat surface passing through the body or an organ

frontal (coronal)
divides body or organ into front and back parts

sagittal
divides body or organ into right and left sides

midsagittal
divides body or organ into equal right and left halves

parasagittal
divides body or organ into unequal right and left sides

transverse
cuts across the long axis of the body or organ

oblique
cuts an organ at an angle, not perpendicular to an axis