Anatomy Exam 2: The Respiratory System

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respiration
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ventilation of the lungs (breathing) OR the use of oxygen in cellular metabolism
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respiratory system
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an organ system that rhythmically takes in air and expels it from the body, thereby supplying the body with oxygen and expelling the carbon dioxide that it generates
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conducting division
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the part of the respiratory system consisting of those passages that serve only for airflow, essentially from the nostrils through the major bronchioles
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respiratory division
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the part of the respiratory system consisting of the alveoli and other gas-exchange regions of the distal airway
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upper respiratory tract
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the airway from the nose through the larynx; respiratory organs of the head and neck
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lower respiratory tract
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the regions from the trachea through the lungs; the respiratory organs of the thorax
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nose
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warms, cleanses, and humidifies inhaled air; detects odors; serves as a resonating chamber that amplifies the voice
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vibrissae
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stiff guard hairs of the nose that block insects and debris from entering the nose
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olfactory epithelium
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sensory cells in the nose that cover a small area of the roof of the nasal fossa and adjacent parts of the septum and superior concha; detect odors
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respiratory epithelium
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pseudostratified columnar epithelia that lines the nose; contains goblet cells and mucous glands in which inhaled dust, pollen, bacteria, and other foreign matter sticks; well populated by lymphocytes and plasma cells that mount immune defenses against inhaled pathogens
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erectile tissue (swell body)
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an extensive venous plexus in the inferior concha that swells about every 30 minutes on one side of the nose; fills with blood and restricts airflow through that fossa; this allows the engorged side time to recover from drying.
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pharynx
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a muscular funnel extending from the posterior nasal apertures and the larynx
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nasopharynx
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distal to the posterior nasal apertures and above the uvula; receives the auditory tubes from the middle ears and houses the pharyngeal tonsil; receives only air
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oropharynx
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a space between the posterior margin of the uvula and the epiglottis; receives air and food
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laryngopharynx
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lies mostly posterior to the larynx, extending from the superior margin of the epiglottis to the inferior margin of the cricoid cartilage
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larynx
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voice box; a cartilaginous chamber whose primary function is to keep food and drink out of the airway, but it evolved the additional role of phonation
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phonation
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sound production
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epiglottis
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a flat of tissue that guards the superior opening of the larynx
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vestibular folds
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close the larynx during swallowing; play no role in speech
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vocal cords (vocal folds)
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produce sound when air passes between them
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glottis
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the vocal cords and the opening between them
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trachea
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windpipe; a rigid tube anterior to the esophagus
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mucociliary escalator
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a mechanism of debris removal in which mucous traps inhaled particles, and the upward beating of the cilia drives the debris-laden mucus toward the pharynx, where it is swallowed
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adventitia
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the outermost layer of the trachea
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carina
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an interal median ridge in the lowermost tracheal cartilage that directs the airflow to the left and right
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costal surface
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surface of the lung pressed against the rib cage
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mediastinal surface
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the surface of the lung that faces medially
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hilum
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a slit in the mediastinal surface of a lung in which the lung receives the main bronchus, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves
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root
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the main bronchus, blood vessels, lymphatics, and nerves of each lung
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bronchial tree
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the branching system of air tubes extending from the main bronchus to the terminal bronchioles of each lung
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right main (primary) bronchus
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the bronchus in which aspirated foreign objects are most likely to get stuck
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bronchopulmonary segment
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an independent unit of lung tissue supplied by a segmental bronchus
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pulmonary lobule
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the portion of the lung ventilated by one bronchiole
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bronchiole
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continuations of the airway that lack supportive cartilage and are 1mm or less in diameter
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terminal bronchiole
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the final branches of the conducting division which branch from each bronchiole
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respiratory bronchioles
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branch from each terminal bronchiole; have alveoli budding from their walls; considered the beginning of the respiratory division because their alveoli participate in gas exchange
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squamous (type I) alveolar cells
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95% of the alveolar surface area; their thinness allows for rapid gas diffusion between the air and blood
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great (type II) alveolar cells
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5% of the alveolar surface area; considerably outnumber squamous alveolar cells; repair the alveolar epithelium when the squamous cells are damaged; secrete pulmonary surfactant
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pulmonary surfactant
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a mixture of phospholipids nad protein that coats the alveoli and the smallest bronchioles and prevents the bronchioles from collapsing when one exhales
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alveolar macrophages (dust cells)
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the most numerous of all cells in the lung; wander the lumens of the alveoli and the connective tissue between them; keep the alveoli free of debris by phagocytizing dust particles that escape entrapment by mucus in the higher parts of the respiratory tract.
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respiratory membrane
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the membrane through which gases are exchanged in the alveolus; consists only of the squamous alveolar cell, the squamous endothelial cell of the capillary, and their shared basement membrane
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visceral pleura
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the serous membrane on the surface of the lung
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parietal pleura
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the serious membrane that adheres to the mediastinum, inner surface of the rib cage, and superior surface of the diaphragm
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pleural cavity
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the space between the parietal and visceral pleurae; does not contain a lung, but rather, wraps around it
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pleural fluid
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a film of slippery fluid in the pleural cavity
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inspiration
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inhaling
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expiration
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exhaling
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respiratory cycle
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one complete breath, in and out
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quiet respiration
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refers to relaxed, unconscious , automatic breathing
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forced respiration
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unusually deep or rapid breathing, as in a state of exercise or when singing
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ventral respiratory group (VRG)
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the primary generator of the respiratory rhythm; an elongated nucleus in the medulla with two commingled webs of neurons
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eupnea
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quiet breathing
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inspiratory (I) neurons
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fires for about 2 seconds at a time, issues nerve signals to integrating centers in the spinal cord, output from the spinal centers causes contraction of the diaphragm and intercostal muscles resulting in inspiration
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expiratory (E) neurons
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inhibit the inspiratory neurons and allow the inspiratory muscles to relax causing elastic recoil of the thoracic cage and expiration
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dorsal respiratory group (DRG)
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an integrating center that received input from several sources; issues output to the VRG that modifies the respiraotry rhythm to adapt to varying conditions a web of neurons that extends for much of the length of the medulla between the VRG and the central canal of the brainstem
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pontine respiratory group (PRG)
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modified the rhythm of the VRG; received input from higher brain centers including the hypothalamus, limbic system, and cerebral cortex, and issues output to both the DRG and VRG; it hastens or delays the transition from inspiration to expiration; adapts breathing to special circumstances such as sleep, exercise, vocalization, and emotional responses; located on each side of the pons
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central chemoreceoptors
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brainstem neurons that respond especially to changes in the pH of the cerebrospinal fluid; concentrated on each side of the medulla oblongata
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peripheral chemocreceptors
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respond to the oxygen and carbon dioxide content of the blood, but most of all to pH; located in the carotid and aortic bodies of the large arteries above the heart
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stretch receptors
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respond to inflation of the lungs and signal the DRG by way of the vagus nerves; found in the smooth muscle of the bronchi and bronchioles and in the visceral pleura
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inflation (Hering-Breuer) reflex
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a protective somatic reflex that strongly inhibits the inspiratory neurons and stops inspiration; triggers by excessive inflation of the lungs
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irritant receptors
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nerve endings amid the epithelial cells of the airway; respond to smoke, dust, pollen, chemical fumes, cold air, and excess mucus; transmit signals by way of the vagus nerves to the DRG, and the DRG returns signals to the respiratory and bronchial muscles, resulting in suck protective reflexes as bronchoconstriction, shallower breathing, breath-holding, or coughing
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apnea
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breath holding
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atmospheric (barometric) pressure
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the pressure that drives respiration; the weight of the air above us
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Boyle’s law
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states that at a constant temperature, the pressure of a given quantity of gas is inversely proportional to its volume.
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intrapulmonary (alveolar) pressure
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the internal pressure of the lungs
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Charles’s law
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the volume of a given quantity of gas is directly proportional to its absolute temperature
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pneumothorax
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the presence of air in the pleural cavity
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atelectasis
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the collapse of part of all of a lung
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bronchodilation
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an increase in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole
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bronchoconstriction
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a decrease in the diameter of a bronchus or bronchiole
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pulmonary compliance
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the ease with which the lungs expand; the change in lung volume relative to a given pressure change
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anatomical dead space
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the conducting division; air here cannot exchange gases with the blood
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physiological (total) dead space
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the sum of anatomical dead space and any pathological alveolar dead space the may exist
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alveolar ventilation rate (AVR)
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(all of the inhaled air minus the air that stays in the dead space) multiplied by (respiratory rate)
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residual volume
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the air that is leftover in the alveoli after expiration; allows gas exchange with the blood to continue even between the times one inhales fresh air
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spirometry
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the process of measuring a patient’s pulmonary ventilation in order to assess the severity of a respiratory disease or monitor the patient’s improvement or deterioration
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spirometer
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a device which recaptures the expired breath and records variables such as the rate and depth of breathing, speed of expiration, and rate of oxygen consumption
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tidal volume (TV)
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the amount of air inhaled and exhaled in one cycle
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inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
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the air that it is possible to inhale, with maximum effort, beyond the amount normally inhaled
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expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
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the air that it is possible to exhale, with maximum effort, beyond the amount normally exhaled
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vital capacity (VC)
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ERV + TV + IRV; the maximum ability to ventilate the lungs in one breath
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inspiratory capacity
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TV + IRV
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functional residual capacity
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RV + ERV
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total lung capacity
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RV + VC
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restrictive disorders
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disorders that reduce pulmonary compliance, thus limiting the amount to which the lungs can be inflated; in spirometry they show as a reduced vital capacity; any disease the produces pulmonary fibrosis
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obstructive disorders
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disorders that interfere with airflow by narrowing or blocking hte airway; make it harder to inhale or exhale a given amount of air; can be measured with the forced expiratory volume
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forced expiratory volume
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the volume of air or the percentage of the vital capacity that can be exhaled in a given time interval
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peak flow
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the maximum speed of expiration
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minute respiratory volume (MRV)
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the amount of air inhaled per minute; determines the alveolar ventilation rate; TV multiplied by respiratory rate
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maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV)
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the maximum minute respiratory volume that normally occurs during heavy exercise; 125-170L/min
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Dalton’s law
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the total atmospheric pressure is a sum of the contributions of nitrogen, oxygen, and carbon dioxide
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partial pressure
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the separate contribution of each gas in a mixture; symbolized with a P followed by the chemical formula of the gas in question
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Henry’s law
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states that at the air-water interface, for a given temperature, the amount of gas that dissolves in the water is determined by its solubility in water and its partial pressure in the air
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gas transport
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the process of carrying gases from the alveoli to the systemic tissues and vice versa
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oxyhemoglobin (HbO2)
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hemoglobin with one or more molecules of oxygen bound to it
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deoxyhemoglobin (HHb)
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hemoglobin with no oxygen bound to it
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oxyhemoglobin dissociation curve
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shows the relationship between hemoglobin saturation and the partial pressure of oxygen
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carbonic acid
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occurs when carbon dioxide is hydrated; dissociates into bicarbonate and hydrogen ions
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carbamino compounds
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compound formed when carbon dioxide binds to the amino groups of plasma proteins and hemoglobin
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carbaminohemoglobin (HbCO2)
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the most common carbamino compound
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chloride shift
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the exchange when the chloride-bicarbonate exchanger pumps most of the HCO3- out of the RBC in exchange for chloride from the blood plasma
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Bohr effect
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active tissues generate extra carbon dioxide which raises the hydrogen concentration and lower the pH of the blood. Hydrogen ions weaken the bond between hemoglobine and oxygen and thereby promote oxygen unloading
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bisphosphoglycerate (BPG)
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a metabolic intermediate of RBCs; binds to hemoglobin and promotes oxygen unloading
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Haldane effect
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a low level of oxyhemoglobin enables the blood to transport more carbon dioxide; occurs because oxyhemoglobin does not bind carbon dioxide as well as deoxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin binds more hydrogen ions than oxyhemoglobin does, and by removing hydrogen from solution deoxyhemoglobin shifts the carbonic acid reaction to the right.
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acidosis
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a blood pH lower than 7.35
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alkalosis
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a blood pH higher than 7.45
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hypocapnia
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a partial pressure of carbon dioxide less than 37 mm Hg; the most common cause of alkalosis
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hypercapnia
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a partial pressure of carbon dioxide greater than 43 mm Hg
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hypoxia
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a deficiency of oxygen in a tissue or the inability to use oxygen
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hypoxemic hypoxia
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a state of low arterial partial pressure of oxygen, usually due to inadequate pulmonary exchange
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ischemic hypoxia
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results from inadequate circulation of the blood
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anemic hypoxia
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due to anemia and the resulting inability of the body to carry adequate oxygen
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histotoxic hypoxia
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occurs when a metabolic poison such as cyanide prevents the tissues from using the oxygen delivered to them
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cyanosis
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blueness of the skin which often signals hypoxia
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oxygen toxicity
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rapidly develops when pure oxygen is breathed at 2.5 atm or greater
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chronic obstructive pulmonary diseases (COPDs)
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defined by a long-term obstruction of airflow and substantial reduction of pulmonary ventilatior
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chronic bronchitis
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severe, persistent inflammation of the lower respiratory tract; goblet cells of the bronchial mucosa enlarge and secrete excess mucus, while at the same time, the cilia are immobilize and unable to discharge it
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emphysema
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alveolar walls break down and alveoli converge into fewer and larger spaces; there is much less respiratory membrane available for gas exchange
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cor pulmonale
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hypertrophy and potential failure of the right side of the heart due to obstruction of the pulmonary circulation
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squamous cell carcinoma
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the most common form of lung cancer; basal cells of the bronchial epithelium multiply and the ciliated pseudostratified epithelium transforms into the stratified squamous type; as the dividing epithelial cells invade the underlying tissues of the bronchial wall, the bronchus develops bleeding lesions; dense swirled masses of kertin appear in the lung pernchyma and replace funcitonal respiratory tiseeu
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adenocarcinoma
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second most common form of lung cancer; originates in the mucous glands of the lamina propria
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small-cell (oat-cell) carcinoma
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the least common but most dangerous form of lung cancer; named for clusters of cells that resemble oat grains; originates in the main bronchi but invades the mediastinum and metastasizes quickly to other organs
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venous reserve
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the oxygen remaining in the blood after it passes through the capillary bed; can sustain life for 4-5 minutes even in the event of respiratory arrest
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utilization coefficient
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the amount of oxygen that the hemoglobin gives up as it goes through the systemic capillaries

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