Analysis, Argument, and Synthesis terms

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alliteration
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the repetition of initial sounds in successive words
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anaphora
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the use of repeated words at the beginnings of phrases, clauses and sentences
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antithesis
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the juxtaposition of opposites, often in parallel structure
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arrangement
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the order in which ideas are presented in a speech or essay
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artistic proofs
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the proofs that are within the control of the speaker or writer
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backing
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in the Toulmin scheme, support for the warrant; the unstated assumption behind the argument
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claim
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a statement of a position; a stand or thesis
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conditions of rebuttal
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in the Toulmin scheme, the anticipation and addressing of counter-arguments
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confirmatio
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the arguments supporting the proposition; the evidence propping up the arguments
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enthymeme
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a statement that omits a premise that is understood by the audience; a shortened syllogism
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ethos
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the character or credibility of the speaker or writer
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exordium
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the introduction that gains the audience’s attention
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ground
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in the Toulmin scheme, the actual evidence in support of the reasons
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hyperbole
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exaggeration to achieve a heightened effect
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invention
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the process of formulating and ordering ideas for speaking and writing
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irony
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a figure of speech in which the actual meaning of the words is expressed as the literal opposite
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logos
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the content of the written or spoken message
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metaphor
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a comparison between unlike things
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narratio
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background information; the facts of the case
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pathos
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the emotional appeal to the audience by the speaker
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partitio
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the main headings or topics under which a topic will be discussed
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periodic sentence
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a very long sentence that delays the predicate until the end, or both the subject and the predicate, until the end. (i.e. main clause with the main verb)
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peroratio
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conclusion; summary of arguments, calling for a specific response and making a final emotional appeal
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propositio
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the main idea or thesis
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qualifier
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in the Toulmin scheme, a limit on the claim
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reasons
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in the Toulmin scheme, supports for the claim
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refutatio
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the counter-arguments
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rhetorical context
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background or situation to which a persuasive message is addressed
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rhetorical triangle
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traditionally, a figure representing the writer, audience and message as the three points of the triangle; in the modern version a figure consisting of five elements; writer, audience message, purpose, and rhetorical context.
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Rogerian argument
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a modern method of argumentation that tries to find mutually agreeable solutions to problems by seeking common ground, building trust, and reducing threat
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says/does analysis
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a method for close reading and rhetorical analysis of a text, using summary of the content of the text (what the text says) and description of the construction, organization , and form of the text 9what the text does)
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style
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the way in which the writer or speaker expresses ideas
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syllogism
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a chain of logical reasoning moving from general, universal principles to specific instances
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Toulmin scheme
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a model of informal logic commonly used in argumentation
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visual rhetoric
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the incorporation of visual elements (such as photographs, charts, or web sites) into an argument, and the rhetorical impact of those images on an audience
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warrant
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in the Toulmin scheme, the unstated assumption behind the argument

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