American Literature – Unit 1: Puritan Writers Essay

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forms of writing among Puritans
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diaries, spiritual autobiographies, histories, poetry
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Of Plymouth Plantation
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1630s-1640s; memoirs of William Bradford
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Bay Psalm Book
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1640; first book published in America; a translation of the Biblical book of psalms; written in plain style
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The Tenth Muse Lately Sprung Up in America
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1650; the first book of poetry by an American
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“Day of Doom”
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1662; popular poem of its time describing the events of eternal damnation
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The Great Works of Christ in America
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1702; written by Cotton Mather
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“Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God”
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1740s; sermon marking the revival of Puritanism known as “The Great Awakening”
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Puritan values that influenced life and writing
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grace, plainness, divine mission
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grace
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salvation, cleasing themselves of envy, lust and vanity; predistinaiton
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plainnes
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in writing, work and places of worship
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divine mission
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God approves of all that is done; believed they were carrying to America true Christianity as decreed by God
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instruction and inspiration
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what was the purpose of Puritan writings?
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Bradford had a providential view of history; pervaded by a vision of America as a nation dedicated and sustained by God
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What kind of view did Bradford have on society?
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Williams Bradford
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1590-1657; author of Plymouth Plantation; Separatist
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Anne Bradstreet
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1612-1672; sails to Massachusettes Bay Colony in 1630 w/ husband, father; first American poet, first female poet writing in the English language
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one must not become too attached to things of this world humility as a woman grace makes everyone equal
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Puritan Beliefs of Bradstreet
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plain stlye
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Style of Bradstreet’s writing
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domestic life
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Subject of Bradstreet’s poems
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faith in and love of God
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Theme of Bradstreet’s poems
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simple diction; iambic pantameter; rhyme; series of couplets
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Characteristics of “To my Dear and Loving Husband
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descrption narration exposition persuasion
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four forms of discourse
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description
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shows how something strikes the senses
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narration
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tells the events of a story
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exposition
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explains how something is done/the facts
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persuasion
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attempts to make the reader/listener adopt an opinon/take action
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prose
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writing in snetences and paragraphs
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poetry
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writing in lines and stanzas
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stanza
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a unit of a poem that is longer that a single line
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rhyme
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the repitition of sounds in two or more words or phrases that appear close to each other in a poem
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rhythm
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the arrangement of stressed and unstressed syllables in a pattern
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imagery
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words or phrases of stressed and unstressed syllables in apattern
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figure of speech
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a word of expression that is not meant to be interpreted literally
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iamb
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a poetic foot consisting of an unstressed syllable followed by a stressed syllable
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iambic pentameter
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the most common verse line in English and American poetry
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foot
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a unit used to measure the meter or rhythmic pattern of a line or poetry (either two or three sylllables per foot)
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couplet
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two rhyming lines
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metaphor
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a figure of speech that makes a comparison between 2 things which are basically dissimilar
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simile
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a figure of speech comparint 2 essentially unlike things through the uses of a specific word of comparison, such as “as” “like” “than” “resembles”
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hyperbole
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a figure of speech using exaggeration or overstatement for special effect
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alliteration
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the repition of similar sounds, usually consonants, in a group of words
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personification
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a figure of speech in which something nonhuman is givne human qualities
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rhetorical question
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a questionsuggesting its own answer and not requiring an answer
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parallel structure
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the use of phrases, clauses, or sentences that are similar or complementary in structure or meaning
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allusion
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a reference to a person, place, event, or literary work that a writer expects a reader to recognize
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plain language
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a simple/clear style of writing which began as a revolt against ornate style
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ornate style
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a highly elaborate style of writing popular in England and America in the 17th and 18th centuries
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prosaic
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work that is ordinary, commonplace, or dull
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poetic/lyrical
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work that is rich with imagery, figurative language and/or rhythm

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