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American Literature 2359: Final Exam Needham Essay

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“The durability of [this author] for the general reader is one measure of his genius”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“Two centuries after birth, the forum and the marketplace echo his words and ideas.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“Born to the clerical tradition”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“married Ellen Tucker, whose death, less than two years later, acutely grieved him throughout his life.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“Launched himself upon the career of public lecturer, which thereafter gave him his modest livelihood.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“resigned from the ministry” and “told his congregation he could no longer find inherent grace in the observation of the Lord’s Supper.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“said that his ideas of self-reliance and the general divinity of humanity caused him to conclude that ‘in order to be a good minister it was necessary to leave the ministry'”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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This authors “speculations proved prophetic, having as firm a practical relationship with the conditions of our present age as with the history of humankind before him.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“His passion for unity resembles Einstein’s as much as Plato’s; and his passion unites serenity and practicality, God and science, in a manner highly suggestive for those attempting to solve the dilemmas which have seemed most desperately urgent in our time.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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This author believed transcendental law “was the “moral law,” through which human beings discover the nature of God, a living spirit; yet it had been the practice of historical Christianity -“as if God were dead”- to formalize Him and to fundamentalize religion through fixed conventions of dogma and scripture.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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Had a second marriage and four children, three of which died.
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“After 1850 [this author] gave much of his thought to national politics, social reforms, and the growing contest over slavery.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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Wrote and published his poems which “contain the core of his philosophy, which is essentially lyrical, and they are often its best expression”.
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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Fully recognized the fact that he was not an original philosopher. And said, “I am too young yet but several ages to compile a code.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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Said, “I wish to know the laws of this wonderful power, that I may domesticate it.”
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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He is the “transparent eyeball” through which much of the best light of the ages is brought to a focus of usefulness for the present day.
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Ralph Waldo Emerson
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“Studied in her fathers law office but as a woman could not practice law”
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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Married to an abolitionist
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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“Honeymooned in England where they attended the World Anti-Slavery Convention but discovered that women were barred from participation.”
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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Organized convention to discuss Women’s rights with Lucretia Mostt which took place in America
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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This authors “Declaration of Sentiments” was probably jointly written with Most.
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Elizabeth Cady Stanton
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Born a slave
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Sojourner Truth
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After New York freed slaves, “she supported herself as a domestic until she found God’s call as an itinerant preacher.”
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Sojourner Truth
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“Joined William Lloyd Garrison, Federico Douglass, and other abolitionists and human rights workers.”
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Sojourner Truth
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Impressed “her audiences with her physical size, imperial bearing, and impassioned speaking.”
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Sojourner Truth
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This authors youngest sister, mother, husband, and oldest daughter all died while she was in her 30’s
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Fanny Fern
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While “penniless, she entered a marriage that ended in divorce, scandalizing her family, who refused to support her”
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Fanny Fern
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Sewed, taught, and wrote to provide for herself and her kids.
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Fanny Fern
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“Despite the discouragement of her brother, a famous writer who criticized her “vulgarity” and “indecency,” she found editor and a wide readership under the name [she goes by in our book]”
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Fanny Fern
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Nathaniel Hawthorn wrote about this author and said, “I enjoyed it a good deal. The woman writes as if the devil was in her, and that is the only condition under which a woman ever writes anything worth reading * * *. When they throw odd the restraints of decency and come before the public stark naked, as it were -then their books are sure to possess character and value.”
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Fanny Fern
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One of the most serious writers of his age and very popular.
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Longfellow
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“combined considerable learning with an enlightened understanding of the people.”
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Longfellow
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“expressed the lives and ideals of humbler Americans”
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Longfellow
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“became a national bard” among the rising democracy
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
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Poems reflect the “optimistic sentiment and the love of a good lesson that characterized the humanitarian spirit of the people.”
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Longfellow
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“became a leading figure among the writers and scholars” during the “flowering of New England”
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Longfellow
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Friend of hawthorne
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Longfellow
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“appeal for the common reader in England was as great as at home and rivaled that of Tennyson”
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
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“occupies a niche near the memorial to T.S. Eliot in Westminster Abbey’s Poet corner.
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Longfellow
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“lapses into didacticism and sentimentality” which reflects the romanticism of his age.
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Henry Wadsworth Longfellow
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“A poor slave mother pleading for security an freedom for her own children and children of other mothers still in bondage”
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Harriet Jacobs
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“Emphasized the special suffering of women and girls under slavery”
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Harriet Jacobs
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“used descriptions of the lecherous persecution she experienced as a teenage servant” “despite the pained embarrassment she felt”
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Harriet Jacobs
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father was a carpenter and mother was “a slave merely in name, but in nature noble and womanly”
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Harriet Jacobs
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Mother died when she 6 leaving her to home with her slave mistress who died six years later leaving her slave to her 3 year old daughter who’s father became her persecutor.
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Harriet Jacobs
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Was reminded “[she] was his property [and] must be subject to his will in atoll things”
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Harriet Jacobs
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Entered into a sexual relationship with Samuel Treadwell (Mr.Sands)and had 2 children
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Harriet Jacobs
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Escaped to the North after hiding in her grandmothers cramped attic space after 7 years.
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Harriet Jacobs
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Used pseudonym Linda Brent
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Harriet Jacobs
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When her book appears “it was one of the few slave narratives told by a woman out of the hundred or more in print before the civil war.”
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Harriet Jacobs
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As the 19th century progressed, Romanticism gave rise to ________________.
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Transcendentalism
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A romantic ________ of idealism derived from ___________.
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philosophy, Unitarianism
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Unitarians managed a compromise of rational ______ with _______.
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Deism, Calvinism
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Unitarians believed in transcendence of __________.
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“Oversoul”
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___________ was considered the all-pervading power for goodness from which all things come and of which all things are a part.
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Oversoul
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Transcendentalists maintained that knowledge in human mind was __________.
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innate
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Transcendentalists maintained that ________ surpassed reason as a guide to the truth.
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intuition
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Transcendentalists maintained that God infused the __________.
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universe
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Transcendentalists maintained that a correspondence exists between the microcosm of the ________ ____ and macro-cosmic _______ of the universe.
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individual mind, Oversoul
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Transcendentalism’s impetus toward ______ effort and social practicality sprang from roots largely homegrown in soil redolent of ________ and utopian promises of the future.
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individual, religious
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Transcendentalism allows for ______ ________ thought.
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liberal scientific
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Transcendentalism rejects Calvinists’ emphasis on original ______ and inherited _____.
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depravity, guilt
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Transcendentalism perceives Godhead as _____ more than Trinity.
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Unity
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Transcendentalism sees Holy Ghost as _______ _____ in every human being
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divine spark
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Transcendentalism regards ________ of humans as Godlike.
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intuition
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Transcendentalism regards highly ______ and _______ living conditions
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Spartan, monastic
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The Civil War (1861-1865) officially ended 19th Century ________ and gave way to ________ that would continue into 20th Century.
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Romanticism, realism
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Emergence of _________ _________ literature pointed the way to the realism that dominated much of nation’s fiction in decades immediately after the Civil War.
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women’s domestic
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Emergence of _________ _________ literature supported many reform goals by portraying the everyday conditions of life in US.
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women’s domestic
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Anti-Transcendentalists demonstrate varying degrees of the __________.
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movement
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Hawthorne and Melville are sometimes referred to as _______________ as they saw both good and evil in man.
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Anti-Transcendentalists
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Thoreau helped reform state hospitals for insane that made possible the removal of those unfortunates from the _______ that had housed them.
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prisons
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Thoreau was noted for strong stand for _______ and other reforms.
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abolition
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Thoreau is the most noteworthy to literature for the enduring legacy of his extreme __________ and for the continuing power of his concept of civil ___________.
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individualism, disobedience
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________ expressed in his literature the movement’s important ideas as he had lived them.
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Thoreau
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_________ wrote major theoretical expositions of movement.
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Emerson
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Rapid development of industry and financial institutions that were accompanied by economic _____ that produced in the older settlements a kind of urban ______ the younger nation had not known.
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crises, poverty
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Immigrants made up about _ percent of the population by end of century.
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15
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Transcendentalism fueled a swelling tide of __________ reform.
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humanitarian
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Transcendental thinking on the just treatment of _______, the______’s movement, and struggle for abolition of ______ can hardly be overstated.
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laborers, women, slavery
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Transcendentalism regards equality of _____, _____, and _____.
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sexes, classes, races
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Transcendentalism regards shared ______ and _____.
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labor, wealth
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“Here once the embattled ___ stood” -Concord Hymm
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farmers
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“And ___ the ruined bridge was swept” -Concord Hymm
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Time
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“We set to-day a ___ stone; That memory may their dead redeem, when, like our sires, our sons are gone”.-Concord Hymm
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votive
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“Bid ___ and Nature gently spare”-Concord Hymm
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Time
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Each and All, “Nothing is ___ or ___ alone”
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Fair or Good
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“Again I saw, again I heard” from Each and All, means what?
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rebirth
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“The gound-pine curled its pretty wreath, Running over the club-moss burrs; I inhaled the viloet’s breath; Around me stood the oaks and firs; Pine-cones and acorns lay one the ground” from Each and All means what?
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Life and Death
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“I yielded myself to the ___ whole”-Each and All
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perfect
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Emerson married _____ ________, who death, less than 2 year later, actuely grieved him throughout his life.
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Ellen Tucker
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“In __, when sea-winds pierced our solitudes”- The Rhodora
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May
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“Spreading its ___ blooms in a damp nook”-The Rhodora
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leafless
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“…if eyes were made for seeing, Then Beauty is its own excuse for being: Why thou wert there, O ___ of the rose!”-The Rhodora
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rival
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“But in my simple ignorance, suppose, The self-same Power that brought me there brought you” is from what text?
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Emerson’s The Rhodora
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“___ of the sky” -The Snow-Storm
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trumpets
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“And when his hours are numbered, and the world is all his own, retiring , as he were not, leaves, when the sun appears, astonished art” is a text from what?
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The Snow-Storm by Emerson
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“To mimic in slow structures, stone by stone, built in an age, the mad wind’s night-work, the frolic architecture of the snow” is a text from what?
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The Snow-Storm by Emerson
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“The Apology” is what for Emerson?
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A defense of what he is saying.
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“Think me not unkind and rude That ~I walk alone in grove and glen~; I go to the god of the wood To fetch his word to men” from The Apology is what kind of idea?
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Romantic idea. Nature is providing answers. It’s also elevating the individual.
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“Writes a letter in MY book” from The Apology means?
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He does not have the same views as others. Different interpretations.
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“Childe (scold) me not, laborious band, for the idle flowers I brought; Every aster (plant) in my hand, Goes home loaded without a thought” from The Apology means?
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There’s a story behind each flower. Nature knows everything.
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“Though loathe to grieve, the evil time’s sole patriot” from Ode means?
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Time doesn’t heal all wounds
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“My HONIED (own) thought, for the priest’s can’t, or statesman’s rant” from Ode means what?
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He won’t forsake his own thinking for conventional thinking at the time.
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“prates” from Ode means?
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Talk stupidly
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In the Ode, it mentions taking land, and turning __ to ___.
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Mexicans, Americans
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“The southern ____ would grieve”. -Ode
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crocodile
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“Funeral eloquence rattles the ____”-Ode
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Coffin-lid
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What is the answer Emerson offers in the Ode?
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“Live for friendship, live for love, for truth’s and harmony’s behoof”.
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“Knows to bring honey Out of the ___” -Ode
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lion
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Brahma is what?
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Hindu god. Also the speaker of the text.
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Who says what appears to be opposite, are really the same?
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Brahma
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“Shadow and ___ are the same”-Brahma
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sunlight
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“The strong gods pine for my abode”-Brahma means?
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Stop focusing on what you think is Heaven. Instead, focus your attention on what’s going on now and what I’ve said. (Brahma is speaking- oversoul)
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Born on Dec. 10, 1830 in Amherst, Mass. Her father a successful lawyer who became a member of Congress. His timid wife “trembled, obeyed, and was silent.”
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Emily Dickinson
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Thomas W. Higginson, a literary friend of the family, who tried unsuccessfully to “improve” whose unconventional style.?
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Emily Dickinson
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Beginning in 1914, established her recognition as a major poet and her immediate influence on those young writers who are creating the radical poetry of the 20th century.
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Emily Dickinson
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She discovered that the sharp, intense image is the poet’s best instrument.
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Emily Dickinson
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The Mountain of the Holy Cross was a wood engraving in Colorado as discussed by Longfellow, was important because?
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It stood as confirmation of God’s approval for the “manifest destiny” of American westward expansion.
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“all men and women are created equal” comes from what text?
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Declaration of Sentiments
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“absolute despotism” comes from what text?
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Declaration of Sentiments
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How many indictments are there against men in Stanton’s Declaration of Sentiments?
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15
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“inalienable right to the ___ franchise” -Declaration of Sentiments
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elective
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“Sphere of action” comes from what text?
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Declaration of Sentiments
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In, “Aunt Hetty on Matrimony”, what does the author say to set the girl’s affection rather than daydreaming about marriage?
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cats, poodles, parrots or lap dogs
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In, “A Psalm of Life”, ___ is long, and Time is fleeting.
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ART
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In, “A Psalm of Life”, the text makes the reader believe?
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The soul doesn’t die with the body.
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In, “A Psalm of Life”, “learn to ___ and to wait”.
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labor
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In “A Psalm of Life”, “But to ___ that each tomorrow find us farther than today.”
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ACT
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“A Psalm of Life”, ___ in the living present! Heart within and God overhead.”
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ACT
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“A Psalm of Life”, With a ____ for any fate learn to ____ and to ____
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Heart, Labor, Wait
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“The Tide Rises, The Tide Falls”, “The little waves with their ___ _____ hands.”
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Soft white
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“The cross of snow”, “Here in this room she died; and a ___ more ____
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soul more white
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“The cross of snow”, “These ____ ____ through all the changing scenes.”
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eighteen years
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“Lay your hand on your heart, kiss this holy book, and swear before God that you’ll tell me the truth.”
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Mrs Flint to Jacobs. Incidents in the life of a Slave Girl- Harriet Jacobs
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Benny and Ellen
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Joseph and Louisa
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Jacob’s hid in a “thicket of bushes” for how long?
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Two hours
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“Give me liberty or give me death” was Jacob’s motto.
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Incidents in the life of a slave girl
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Benny and Ellen were locked up for how long?
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Sixty days
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Whitman, “I hear it was charged against me”, How does the narrator feel about institutions?
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Indifferent
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By institutions Whitman means…
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Marriage
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Beat! Beat! Drums! Intended to sound like…
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war
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“Make no ______—- stop for no expostulation.”
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Parlay
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Reconciliation by Whitman is a poem about …
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Reconciliation
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In “To a common Prostitute” Why is nature lusty?
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It doesn’t discriminate against the prostitute.
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“49” Dickinson is begging for what?
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God to help her get over it
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“280” Why does Dickinson end with a dash?
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The cycle of pain starts over.
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“341” “After great pain, a _____ feeling comes”
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Formal
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“449” Which death is better?
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Neither, they are both dead
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“712” “Because I knew I could not stop for death– He ___ stopped for me.”
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Kindly
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To Longfellow, Why is art long?
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The art of living is long because what you’ve done is left behind.
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Which author lived in poverty all his life because of his poems being ignored in America?
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Whitman
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Which author’s literature was “Obscene”
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Whitman
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Whitman signed this book on his deathbed
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Leaves of grass
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What three people are mentioned in “A sight in the daybreak Gray and Dim,” Although none are given a name?
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1st: Elderly Man 2nd: Very young boy 3rd: “Christ”
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Slaves wrote to:
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Expose slavery, involve white’s right thinking, Sentiments in the abolitionist movement
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Who is Sojurner Truth’s audience?
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Mostly religious white men
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Who is the speaker in “Aunt Hetty on Matrimony?”
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Aunt Hetty
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Lessons in “The Rhodora”
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Things that bring life can bring destruction. Same thing that brings beauty might bring horror.