Airway exam review

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When auscultating the lungs of a patient with early pulmonary edema, you will MOST likely hear:
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inspiratory rhonchi to the bilateral apices of the lungs.
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The ____________ are pyramid-like structures that form the posterior attachment of the vocal cords.
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arytenoid cartilages
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A patient who is coughing up purulent sputum is MOST likely experiencing:
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An infection
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Intrapulmonary shunting is defined as:
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the return of unoxygenated blood to the left side of the heart.
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The most obvious external landmark of the larynx is the:
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thyroid cartilage.
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A sudden increase in end-tidal CO2 may be the earliest indicator of:
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return of spontaneous circulation.
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Open cricothyrotomy is generally contraindicated in all of the following situations, EXCEPT:
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any patient who is younger than 16 years of age.
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It would be appropriate to insert a nasopharyngeal airway in patients who:
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have an altered mental status with an intact gag reflex.
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The BEST way to be certain that the ET tube has passed through the vocal cords is to:
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visualize the tube passing between the vocal cords.
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Physiologic effects of CPAP include:
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opening of collapsed alveoli.
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In contrast to negative-pressure ventilation, positive-pressure ventilation occurs when:
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air is forced into the lungs.
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One of the hallmarks of a pulmonary embolism is:
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cyanosis that does not resolve with oxygen therapy.
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When administering CPAP therapy to a patient, it is important to remember that:
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the increased intrathoracic pressure caused by CPAP can result in hypotension.
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Wheezing is resolved with medications that:
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relax the smooth muscle of the bronchioles.
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Patients with decompensated asthma or COPD who require positive-pressure ventilation:
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may develop a pneumothorax or experience a decrease in venous return to the heart if they are ventilated too rapidly.
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Laryngospasm is defined as:
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spasmodic closure of the vocal cords.
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Open cricothyrotomy is indicated when:
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you are unable to secure a patent airway with less invasive means.
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The volume of air that is moved into or out of the respiratory tract in one breath is called:
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tidal volume
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Hepatojugular reflux occurs when:
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mild pressure placed on the patient’s liver further engorges the jugular veins.
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The cricothyroid membrane:
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is relatively avascular and is covered by skin and minimal subcutaneous tissue.
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The exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between the alveoli and the blood in the pulmonary capillaries is called:
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external respiration.
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Apneustic breathing is characterized by
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short, brisk inhalations with a long pause before exhalation.
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The trachea and mainstem bronchi:
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are lined with beta-2 receptors that result in bronchodilation when stimulated.
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Hyperventilating an apneic patient:
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may decrease venous return to the heart.
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Emphysema is caused by:
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chronic destruction of the alveolar walls.
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Atelectasis occurs when:
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a deficiency of surfactant causes alveolar collapse.
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Signs of clinical improvement during CPAP therapy include:
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increased ease of speaking
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A patient with orthopnea:
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has dyspnea while lying flat.
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The involuntary control of breathing originates in the?
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Pons and medulla
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If chest compressions and repositioning of the airway are unsuccessful in removing a severe airway obstruction in an unconscious patient, you should?
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Perform laryngascopy and Magil forceps
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The upper airway of an adult consists of all the structures above?
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The vocal cords
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The___ is an anatomic space located between the base of the tongue and the epiglottis
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Vallecula
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The volume of air that is moved into or out of the respiratory tract in one breath is called?
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Tidal volume
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When ventilating an apneic adult with a pulse with a BVM, you should?
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Deliver each breath over 1 second at the rate of 10-12 breaths per minute
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After inserting the et tube between the vocal cords, you should remove the stylet from the tube and then?
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Inflate the distal cuff with 5-10 cc of air
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The most obvious risk associated with extubation is?
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Overestimating the patients ability to protect his or her own airway
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In general, a multilumen airway should not be used in patients who are?
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Younger than 16 years old

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