Age of Exploration, Spain & Portugal, Cortes, Britain France and Dutch

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first map of the world
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Fra Mauro Map 1450 (Italian/Catholic monk)
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what were the most accurate parts of the Fra Mauro Map?
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Europe, Mediterranean Sea
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what was missing from the Fra Mauro Map?
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Americas
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what was inaccurate about the Fra Mauro Map?
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oceans were a lot smaller (weren’t sure how far away things were) and Africa was distorted (didn’t know there was a bottom)
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what was at the center of the Fra Mauro Map?
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Jerusalem
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period of Spain and Portugal
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1400s
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Spain & Portugal’s reasons for exploration: political/economics
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Spain and Portugal compete, as well as against Italy who had monopoly on eastern trade. By finding a sea route to Asia, they’d kick out the middle man (Italy) and could lower the prices (boosts merchant class)
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Spain & Portugal’s reasons for exploration: religion
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Spain and Portugal were eager to spread Catholicism to Asia “New World” (missionaries and Jesuits)
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700s-1400s
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giant war over Iberian Peninsula between the Muslim (South) and the Catholics (North)
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results of the Iberian Peninsula war
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Catholics were winning by the 1300s
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1200s
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Portugal unites under the Catholics
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1492
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Catholics finish driving out the Muslims and unite Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella become the 1st Catholic rulers of Spain
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reconquista (and goal)
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reconquest – the goal was the expulsion of 3 million Jews and Muslims (and to convert EVERYONE to Catholicism)
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spanish inquisition
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witch hunt for Muslims/Jews
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Prince Henry the Navigator (person and date)
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1400s: wanted to take control of Muslim trade/wealth (crusade against Muslims), get direct trade with Asia, funded a navigation school (that Columbus may have trained at), and found the bottom of Africa
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where did Portugal set up trading posts (under/after Prince Henry’s command)
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western coast of Africa
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when did Spain start exploration?
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1492
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why was Spain not able to explore before, and when and why were they finally able to?
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Spain couldn’t afford exploration beforehand. In 1492, Spain was finally united, there were no more wars, and they had enough money
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encomienda system
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Charles V makes Cortes governor of Mexico. Cortes divides Mexico into a feudal manor by making the spanish nobles and the natives serfs. the goal was to exploit the land of its valuable resources
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what do the natives (serfs) do in the encomienda system?
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mine, ranch, and farm
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where were goods/raw materials sent to (produced by the encomienda system)?
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Spain (silver, gold, etc.)
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when did the encomienda system end?
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1550s
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Peninsulares
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European/Spanish settlers who moved to the Americas (from Spain), lived among the Muslims and imposed their culture on them, made up 10%
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Mestizos
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Euro/Indian (1/2 and 1/2), made up 60%
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Indigeous
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Indians, made up 30%
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what % of natives die (during Cortes’ period)
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90% (and if they don’t die, they rebel). the dying out of natives led to African slavery
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Ptolemy Map
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300s BCE, origin: Ancient Greece
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Bartolomé de las Casas
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monk, defended Indians
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What was the missionaries’ views on Indians?
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Indians are potential Catholics, therefore we must convert them and help them find Christ
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what were BartolomĂ©’s main messages in his writing?
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Indians are humans, stop enslaving them. Jesus would be pissed (our actions are making Christianity look bad)
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what did BartolomĂ©’s books prove?
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books are not just about conquest. BartolomĂ©’s book was the voice of protest and humanity, but also inspired African slavery
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When and how many Africans were brought to the Spanish Empire?
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during 1511-1650, 300,000 Africans were brought to the Spanish Empire
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what is the longterm impact of Spanish America?
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hosts most Catholics in the world
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state of Britain, France, and the Netherlands during the 1500s
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Britain, France, and the Dutch are internally divided by Catholic/Protestant wars
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what happens to Britain, France, and the Dutch in the 1600s
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the countries become more stable and can start focusing on exploration
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what were Britain, France, and the Dutch looking for when exploring?
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they were looking for a way through the Northwest Passage (which winds through Canada to Asia)
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why was it impossible to make a trip through the Northwest Passage?
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it was too icy
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who takes what: the French
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Canada, Mississippi River, Louisiana
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what were the French interested in?
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fur trade/pelts (beaver), using Jesuits to spread Christianity, the conversion of Indians
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French populations compared to British
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in 1760, only 65,000 French occupied Canada by 1750, there were 1.3 million Brits
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who founded Jamestown and when?
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the British founded Jamestown in 1607 (VA)
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2 things about the British
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they had government support and were not interested in mixing or converting Indians (they just wanted them to get out of their way)
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who takes what: Netherlands/Dutch (what places do they found)
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New York, Manhattan, New Amsterdam (harlem)
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what were the Netherlands interested in and what did they do?
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they were interested in fur trade and recruited everyone (France, English, German, Muslim, Jew, Catholics) PREVIEW OF THE BIG APPLE
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why did the British stay?
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they wanted to kick out the French and Dutch, sought religious freedom, planned to start anew
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why were the British able to last/spread so well?
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they brought families whereas the French only brought men to Canada (their work there was seen as temporary and they did not intend on staying)
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what motivated Prince Henry to explore Africa and seek a new route to Asia?
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wanted to spread Christianity, wanted to find sources of eastern wealth, new sea route to Asia (served as next challenge for Portuguese explorers AFTER Africa)
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accomplishments of Bartolomeu Dias
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sailed to tip of Africa, survived huge storm, able to explore southeast coast (thanks to the storm that blew their ship around the tip of Africa)
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how did Spain try to beat out Portugal?
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they sent Columbus out to sail across Atlantic, who eventually hit the shorelines of the Caribbean
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Line of Demarcation
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proposed by the Pope, divided land so that all lands east would belong to Portugal and all lands west would belong to Spain
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Treaty of Tordesillas
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Spain and Portugal sign to officially acknowledge the Line of Demarcation
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what was expected of the tribes conquered by the Aztecs?
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expected to accept Aztec garrisons and supply land to nobles
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La Malinche (Dona Maria)
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Cortes’ mistress and translator, could speak Nahuatl and Mayan, able to convince Montezuma that Cortes had come in peace
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relationship between French and natives
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both benefitted from fur trade
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relationship between Dutch and natives
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tried to establish healthy relationship but had problems with land claims and trading rights
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relationship between English and natives
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bad
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what diseases were introduced to the Americas by Euroasia/Africa?
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smallpox, measles, tuberculosis, syphilus
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what items/goods were introduced to the Americas by Euroasia/Africa?
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olives, coffee beans, cattle, wheat, bananas, sugarcane, sheep, pigs, horses, rice
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what diseases were introduced to Euroasia/Africa by the Americas?
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polio, hepatitus
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what items/goods were introduced to Euroasia/Africa by the Americas?
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tomato, corn, cocoa bean, pumpkin, tobacco
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what was the most important land taken by Portugal?
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Brazil (sugar)
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what does Ferdinand Magellan do?
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1521: circumnavigates globe, founds Phillipines
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why don’t the Catholics of Spain and Portugal like the Muslims?
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had just fought 700 years war against the Muslims
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why were Spain and Portugal first to explore?
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they were unified (finally beat Muslims after 700 years), in a race to be first, location (Atlantic) allows easy travel
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who was the first mestizo?
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Martin – son of Cortes and Dona Marina
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Macao
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first European trading post set up in China
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Jared Diamond’s thesis from “Guns, Germs, and Steel”
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Understanding the conquistadors success through geography and environmental differences
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Guns, germs, and steel: how did the European’s geographic background give them these 3 advantages?
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gunpowder from China, germs from animals from the Fertile Crescent, metal technology from Fertile Crescent
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when was Concord founded?
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1635
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when was Carlisle founded?
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1678
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why did Euros start using Africans as slaves? (3)
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indians were dying out and africans had already built up an immunity to euro diseases, africans already had experience with agriculture/farming (making it easier for euros to teach them large-scale plantation work), and they were not familiar with the land
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triangular trade
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trading network that crossed over the Atlantic. it consisted of many transatlantic routes that traded goods and Africans
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long term impact of slavery on the Americas
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Africans were responsible for the necessary labor (at the time) of colonies like Haiti. they introduced food, music, and art. largely impacts population
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what was Columbus’ theory for getting to Asia?
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sail west across the Atlantic Ocean
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why does Portugal refuse Columbus?
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after getting support from the Portugal king, Columbus tries to find a western route to Asia. he miscalculates Portugal to Japan (2,700 miles instead of 12,000) and his plan is rejected
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why did Ferdinand and Isabella finally fund Columbus in 1492 after rejecting him so many times before?
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because by then the reconquista had been completed, and granting someone 3 ships was low risk (if they disappear, they’re gone)
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1st voyage of Columbus: how/why did he lie to Ferdinand and Isabella?
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Columbus says hes found China which is filled with spices, gold, and other rich metals (compares to Garden of Eden)
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how many ships did Columbus get for his second voyage?
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17
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what advantage did the Catholics get through the Muslims in Spain/Portugal
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Catholics had first access to key Asian and Arabian inventions for exploration including the compass, astrolabe, and gunpowder
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Portugal general time date
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begins around 1400s, unites under Catholics in 1200s
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Waldseemuller map
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first to use the term “America” after Amerigo Vespucci
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why were the Aztecs so unpopular in Mexico?
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they were outcasts who carried greed for power and delight in human sacrafices
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Amerigo Vespucci
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returned from Europe and claimed that the newly discovered land (along eastern coast of South America) was not part of Asia, but a “new” world –> America is named after him for Waldseemuller map
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long term impact of slavery on Africa
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deprived Africa of younger, fitter generations, disunited families, spread warfare
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how does Columbus describe the Arawaks when he first meets them?
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the Arawaks had never seen swords before, therefore we can take them easily
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why did Italian-Americans lobby so hard for Columbus Day in the late 1800s/early 1900s?
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Italians had started out as Catholic immigrants that the WASPs did not like. Columbus gave them a reason to celebrate and prove their importance in America
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how did the Civil Rights movement change US views on Columbus?
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The Civil Rights movement gave the oppressed voice/group a chance to speak up about their views on Columbus (brought out the negative things about him to light)
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how did the Spanish govt. reward conquistadors, even if they disobeyed their superiors and went out on their own?
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(confident) individuals could always depend on the Spanish govt. to reward them, even if their own didn’t. there was a big free-for-all kind of attitude where if (for example) you conquered a place, it’d be yours. brought out the mercenaries
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where in the US is most evident of Spanish Catholic missionary work?
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California (San Diego, San Francisco) San = Saint
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African slaves: what % went where?
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40% were sent to the Caribbean, 40% to Brazil, 12% to Spanish, 8% to North America
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the Amistad
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ship where slaves overtook the crew, tried to get back to Africa, and got lost
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first African slaves to Europe
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1450s
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creoles
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children of Spanish settlers that are born in Latin America itself.

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