Adolescence Chapter 3 Social redefinition

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Age of majority
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The designated age at which an individual is recognized as an adult
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Social redefinition
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Process through which an individual’s position or status is redefined by society
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Inventionists
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Theorists who argue that the period of adolescence is mainly a social invention
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Child protectionists
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Individuals who argued that adolescents needed to be kept out of the labor force
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Initiation ceremony
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Formal induction of a young person into adulthood
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Status offense
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Violation of the law that pertains to minors
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Cohort
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Group of people born during the samee historical era
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Quinceanera
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Coming out celebration for latino adolescent girls
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Bar (bas) mitzvah
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Transition into adulthood in judaism
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Scarification
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Intentional creation of scars on some part of the body as an initiation ceremony Tattoos and piercing are a form
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Continuous transitions
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Gradually passes into adult roles
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Discontinuous transitions
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Abruptly put into adult roles (stages)
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Social Redefinition
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Changes in status and roles
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Accentuation of difference
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Social redefinition social roles between males and females
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Universal markers of adulthood atainment
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Few of them
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American youth
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accepting responsibility for consequences of one’s actions
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Not an outcome of the industrial revolution
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more full-time jobs in the factories for adolescents
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Nature v. Nurture
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Nature is genetics Nurture is environmental influences
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Stage theory
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1. Qualitative changes rather than quantitative 2. Invariant sequence: start at the beginning and work way through all stages, no skipping 3. Universal: Not culture specific, everyone everywhere goes through this 4. Hierarchially arranged: Start out simple, then add complexities through every stage and what happens in earlier effects later
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Freud
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5 stages 1. Oral stage- child has oral needs, fixation 2. Anal stage- maturation of muscles, toilet training 3. Phalliac- physical changes drive you, pleasure in genitals, oedipus/electra complexes 4. Latency- sex stuff in phallic stage gets repressed, focus on environment, skills, and getting along with peers 5. Genital- sex stuff now resurges but is directed at peers
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Erikson
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1. Trust and mistrust 2. Autonomy v. shame and doubt 3. Initiative v. guilt 4. Industry v. inferiority 5. Identity v. identity diffusion 6. Intimacy v. Isolation 7. Generativity v. stagnation 8. Integrity v. despair

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