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Adlerian Therapy (Chapter 5)

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Adlerian brief therapy
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An intervention that is concise, deliberate, direct, efficient, focused, short-term, and purposeful.
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Basic mistakes
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Faulty, self-defeating perceptions, attitudes, and beliefs that may have been appropriate at one time but are no longer useful. These are myths that are influential in shaping personality.
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Birth order
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Adler identified five psychological positions from which children tend to view life: oldest, second of only two, middle, youngest, and only. Actual birth order itself is less important than a person’s interpretation of his or her place in the family.
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Community feeling
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An individual’s awareness of being part of the human community. Community feeling embodies the sense of being connected to all humanity and to being committed to making the world a better place.
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Early recollections
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Childhood memories (before the age of 9) of one-time events. People retain these memories as capsule summaries of their present philosophy of life. From a series of early recollections, it is possible to understand mistaken notions, present attitudes, social interests, and possible future behavior.
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Encouragement
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The process of increasing one’s courage to face life tasks; used throughout therapy as a way to counter discouragement and to help people set realistic goals.
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Family atmosphere
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The climate of relationships among family members.
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Family constellation
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The social and psychological structure of the family system; includes birth order, the individual’s perception of self, sibling characteristics and ratings, and parental relationships. Each person forms his or her unique view of self, others, and life through the family constellation.
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Fictional finalism
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An imagined central goal that gives direction to behavior and unity to the personality; an image of what people would be like if they were perfect and perfectly secure.
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Goal alignment
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A congruence between the client’s and the counselor’s goals and the collaborative effort of two persons working equally toward specific, agreed-on goals.
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Guiding self-ideal
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Another term for fictional finalism, which represents an individual’s image of a goal of perfection.
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Holistic concept
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We cannot be understood in parts; all aspects of ourselves must be understood in relation to each other.
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Individual psychology
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Adler’s original name for his approach that stressed understanding the whole person, how all dimensions of a person are interconnected, and how all these dimensions are unified by the person’s movement toward a life goal.
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inferiority feelings
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The early determining force in behavior; the source of human striving and the wellspring of creativity. Humans attempt to compensate for both imagined and real inferiorities, which helps them overcome handicaps.
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Insight
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A special form of awareness that facilitates a meaningful understanding within the therapeutic relationship and acts as a foundation for change.
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Interpretation
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Understanding clients’ underlying motives for behaving the way they do in the here and now.
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Life tasks
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Universal problems in human life, including the tasks of friendship (community), work (a division of labor), and intimacy (love and marriage).
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Lifestyle
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The core beliefs and assumptions through which the person organizes his or her reality and finds meaning in life events. Our perceptions of self, others, and the world. Our characteristic way of thinking, acting, feeling, living, and striving toward long-term goals.
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Lifestyle assessment
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The process of gathering early memories, which involves learning to understand the goals and motivations of the client.
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Objective interview
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Adlerians seek basic information about the client’s life as a part of the lifestyle assessment process.
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Phenomenological approach
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Focus on the way people perceive their world. For Adlerians, objective reality is less important than how people interpret reality and the meanings they attach to what they experience.
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Private logic
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Basic convictions and assumptions of the individual that underlie the lifestyle pattern and explain how behaviors fit together to provide consistency.
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Reorientation
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The phase of the counseling process in which clients are helped to discover a new and more functional perspective and are encouraged to take risks and make changes in their lives.
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Social interest
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A sense of identification with humanity; a feeling of belonging; an interest in the common good.
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Striving for superiority
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A strong inclination toward becoming competent, toward mastering the environment, and toward self-improvement. The striving for perfection (and superiority) is a movement toward enhancement of self.
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Style of life
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An individual’s way of thinking, feeling, and acting; a conceptual framework by which the world is perceived and by which people are able to cope with life tasks; the person’s personality.
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Subjective interview
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The process whereby the counselor helps clients tell their life story as completely as possible.
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The question
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Used in an initial assessment to gain understanding of the purpose that symptoms or actions have in a person’s life. The question is, How would your life be different, and what would you do differently, if you did not have this symptom or problem?
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Key Figures of Adlerian Therapy
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Founder: Alfred Adler
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Basic Assumptions of Adlerian Therapy
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Adler stresses social psychology and a positive view of human natures. He views human being as influenced more by social than by biological forces. People are in control of their fate.
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Key Concepts of Adlerian Therapy
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Consciousness not the unconscious, is the center of personality and stresses the individuals positive capactities to fully live in society. Humans are motivated by social interest and feelings of inferiority often serve as the wellspring of creativity, motivating people to strive for mastery, superiority and perfection
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Therapeutic Goals of Adlerians
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Mainly concerncer with helping clients identify and change their mistaken beliefs about self, other, and life. Specific goals include fostering social interest, helping clients overcome feelings of discouragement feel a sense of equality with others.
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Therapeutic Relationship with Adlerian Therapy
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Based on mutual respect and both client and counselor are active. Clients recognize that they are responsible for their behavior and the focus in on examining the client’s lifestyle which is expressed in everything the client does.
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Techniques and Procedures of Adlerian Therapy
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Begin with lifestyle assessment which focuses on the family consetellation and early recollections. An equal relationship that focuses on strenths as well as problems.
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What are the five major tasks of life
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work, friendship, love, spirituality, and the self
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Applications of Adlerian Therapy
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Concerned with helping people reach their full potential. Been applied to areas such as education, crisis counseling
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Multicultural Perspectives of Adlerian Therapy
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Adler was non judgmental. Approach offers a range of cognitive and action-oriented techniques to help people explore their concerns in a cultural context
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Contributions and Limitations of Adlerian Therapy
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His ideas came into every other theory we used, theory has withstood the test of time. Concepts are vague though and very difficult because its common sense theory and oversimplifies how we function.