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Action Potential/Neurochemistry/Development/Sleep

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Action Potential
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An abrupt depolarization (spike) of the membrane potential.
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EPSPs caused by ligand-gated Na+ channels opening to depolarize the cell toward threshold.
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Step 1:
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EPSPs summate to reach threshold and voltage-gated Na+ channels open.
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Step 2:
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Once voltage gated Na+ channels open, Na+ rushes into the cell causing rapid depolarization.
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Step 3:
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As the cell depolarizes Na+ channels close and K+ voltage-gated channels open. K+ flows out and makes makes neuron less positive.
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Step 4:
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Na+ channels are closed and K+ is leaving the cell, the cell is going back toward its resting potential. During this time, the cell can’t fire another action potential because the Na+ channels are “inactivated.”
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Step 5:
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Hyperpolarization – The cell overshoots its normal resting potential, during this time it is harder for the neuron to fire again, but possible if the signal is “important” enough (very strong EPSPs).
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Step 6:
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Restoration – K+ voltage gated channels close again. Membrane permeability back to resting state, Na+/K+ pumps work to restore ion concentration gradients.
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Step 7:
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Thicker, faster
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The _____ the axon, the ___ the conduction.
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Nodes of Ranvier
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Gaps between Schwann Cells.
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Nodes of Ranvier
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Contain most of the ion channels of the axon
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Attention and memory, formed in basal forebrain, projects everywhere, acetate comes from acetyl CoA and choline comes from diet.
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Acetylcholine
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Choline acetyl transferase
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What enzyme combines acetyl and choline?
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Expectation. These neurons are degenerated in Alzheimer’s patients and they don’t expect things.
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What is acetylcholine correlated with?
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Reward, made from substantial nigra and VTA, projects to frontal lobe.
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Dopamine
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Angel, devil
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Frontal Lobes are ______, Nucleus accumbens ________
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Discourage, encourage.
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Frontal lobe _______ impulsivity, nucleus accumbens _________ impulsivity.
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Arousal, made from locus coereleus
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Norepinephrine
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Diverse functions
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Acetylcholine neurons project to brain areas with ?
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Tyrosine to DOPA to dopamine
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How to make dopamine?
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Blocks the dopamine transporter so it is left in synaptic gap.
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What does cocaine do?
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Tyrosine to DOPA to dopamine to norepinephrine.
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How to make norepinephrine?
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on switch
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Norepinephrine is the brain’s _________
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Sleep, dreaming, and moods. Made from raphe nuclei, too much can lead to death, too little can lead to depression.
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Serotonin.
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None
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How much serotonin activity is there in REM?
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Inhibition, major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain, everywhere.
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GABA
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Glutamate to GAD (glutamic acid decarboxylase) to GABA
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How’s GABA synthesized?
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Benzodiazepines
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__________ increase GABA
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GABA
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Anxiety-reducing effects of alcohol, benzodiazepines, and barbiturates all depend upon _______?
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Neuroplasticity, makes connections stronger, dysfunctions could be the cause of schizophrenia
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Glutamate
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Anandamide
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Endogenous marijuana
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Remnants of the original neural tube of the developing embryo.
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What do ventricles form from?
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Hollow space in the middle of the brain.
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What are the ventricles?
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Neurons, glial cells
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Within a region, ___________ are produced before most ___________
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Total number of cell cycles in the ventricular zone.
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How is brain size determined?
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Quadruples
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If the generation time of the VZ cells double, then the final output of neurons produced by them ___________?
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Under
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Ventricular zone is ________ the neocortex
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Longer
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Animals with bigger brains live ________?
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a lot
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Small brains have a ________ of offspring
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constant, surface area
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Our cortex may be as thick as it can get, so the idea is to keep thickness _________, and increase ______________
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Glutamate or apoptosis
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What kills of neurons you no longer need?
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Intelligence
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Number of neurons + wiring complexity = ?
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First, last
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Primary motor and sensory areas myelinate ________, while association cortex myelinate _________.
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PNS, intact
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In the ______, the myelin sheath can remain _______ after injury and help guide the regrowing nerve axon to the correct site of action.
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Collateral sprouting
Collateral sprouting
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CNS, stem cells
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Development, maturation, maintenance, and recovery from injury of the _______ depends upon the presence of ________.
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Proliferative zone, glial cells
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Stem cells originate in the __________, and are guided on their migration by _________.
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Hippocampus, anti-depressant drugs.
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Neurons are born throughout their life in the _________ and _________ can stimulate their production.
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SCN (superchiasmatic nuclei)
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Damage to the ______ disrupts sleep-wake patterns
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Memory enhancement (slow wave oscillations in brain electrical activity), reactivation of recent experiences, and changes in synaptic connectivity.
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Three phenomena linked with sleep?
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Coma, deep sleep
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Slow, synchronized firing neurons that fire as a group is due to GABA. What is this?
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Awake
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Fast, desynchronized neural activity is very active neurons, glutamate or acetylcholine. What is this?
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Alert/Working
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Beta waves?
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Relaxed/Reflecting
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Alpha waves?
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Drowsy/Idealing
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Theta waves?
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Dreamless/Deep sleep
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Delta waves (2-3 Hz)
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REM sleep/Dreaming
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Delta waves (15-30 Hz)
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Longer, lighter
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Progressive REM stages become ________ as SWS becomes _________.
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GABA, thalamus
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________ projections from ________ slow the neuronal activity and EEG.
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SWS; somewhat, REM; significantly
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With age, ______ decreases _____ while ______ decreases _______.
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Acetylcholine, amines.
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_______ takes you into REM, while ______ takes you out of it.
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DA, NE, and 5 HT
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Any neuron in the cortex that is activated by acetylcholine (REM) is inactivated by ____,_____, & ______
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Frontal lobes are quiet in REM
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What is the difference between REM and being awake?
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Depression
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______ is a result of a disordered sleep pattern?
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Orexin, wakefulness
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_______ is influenced by sunlight and promotes ________.
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Insomnia
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Blocking orexin may treat?
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Glutamate
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During REM, what excites neurons that will inhibit motor neurons.
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REM Behavior Disorder
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Abnormal, flailing movements occurring during sleep, with sleep-related injuries, or movements that are potentially injurious or disruptive
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SWS, hippocampus
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During ____ the ________ shows movies to the frontal cortex in very compressed packets of info.
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Amygdala
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Activity in the what causes dreams to have a big fear component?
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Adenosine debris
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You wake up drowsy because of the ________ in your brain
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Action Potential
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MTX, blocks K+ channels – cell can’t get back to RMP, stuck at excited state
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Scorpion toxin
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(TTX) Na+ – depolarization can’t occur.
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Puffer fish toxin
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Jumping from one node to another
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Saltatory conduction
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Dopamine, norepinephrine
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Iron is in ______, copper is in _______