ACS Gen Chem 2 Exam

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ion
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A species of an element in which the number of electrons does not equal the number of protons.
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isotope
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Each isotope of an atom has a different number of neutrons.
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isoelectric
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Two atoms with the same charge.
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isotopic
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Two atoms with the same number of neutrons.
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transition metal orbitals
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The 4s orbital is filled before the 3d orbital, but listed after.
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paramagnetic
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Atoms that possess a permanent magnetic charge due to the presence of unpaired electrons.
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electropositive
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Tending to lose electrons and form positive ions.
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tetrahedral bond angle
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109.5°
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resonance structures
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Two equally correct arrangements of one molecule’s electrons; generally the molecule exists as an average of the two.
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polar molecule
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A molecule that is mostly positive on one side and mostly negative on the other.
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sp³ orbital
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An orbital composed of one s orbital and three p orbitals; can hold eight total electrons. Tetrahedral.
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trigonal planar
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The way that three objects will arrange themselves around a central atom. Non-polar.
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free radicals
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Compounds with an odd number of electrons in their Lewis Structure. Eg. NO₂
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incomplete octets
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Occur in elements that can form stable bonds with less than eight electrons. Eg. BF₃
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expanded octets
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Occur in the third row of the periodic table and beyond in elements that can form stable bonds with more than eight electrons. Eg. XeF₂
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hydrogen bonding
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When hydrogen is attracted to electronegative atoms.
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sigma bonding
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Formed by head-on overlapping between orbitals.
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coordinate covalent bonding
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A covalent bond in which the two electrons derive from the same atom; occurs most often between Lewis acids and bases.
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hybridization
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Mathematical procedure in which the standard atomic orbitals combine to form new orbitals.
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sp² orbital
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Composed of one s orbital and two p orbitals; can hold six total electrons. Trigonal planar.
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pi bonding
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Bonding occurs between orbitals that are side-by-side.
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sp orbital
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Composed of one s and one p orbital; can hold four electrons. Linear.
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linear
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Arrangement of two objects around a central atom. Non-polar.
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bent
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Occurs when one non-bonding pairs and two atoms are arranged around a central atom. Polar.
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tetrahedral
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Arrangement of four objects around a central atom. Non-polar.
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trigonal pyramidal
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Occurs when three atoms and one non-bonding pair is arranged around a central atom. Polar.
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silicon dioxide
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Has a unique structure; O-Si-O bonds are always 109.5°.
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formal charge
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V – N – (B/2) where V = total valence e⁻, N = non-bonding e⁻, and B = bonding e⁻.
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isomer
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Two molecules that are composed of the same type and number of elements but are arranged in different ways and have different properties.
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combustion of a hydrocarbon
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CxHy + (x + y/4)O₂ → xCO₂ + y/2H₂O
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molar volume
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(Vm) The volume occupied by one mole of a substance.
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molar volume of an ideal gas
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22.414 L/mol @ STP
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limiting reagent
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The component of a chemical reaction that will be completely used up first.
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atomic mass
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Can be g/mol, kg/kmol, mg/mmol, etc.
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specific heat
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The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance by one °C. (units: J x g⁻¹ x °C⁻¹)
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heat (J)
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mass (g) x specific heat (J x g⁻¹ x °C⁻¹) x ΔT (°C)
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molar heat capacity
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Same as specific heat, but requirement for raising 1 mole of a substance by one °C.
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bond energy
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The energy required to break a bond, and the energy released when a bond is formed.
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bomb calorimeter
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An insulated container used to study reactions at a constant volume.
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calorimeter constant
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Amount of energy required to raise the water surrounding the chamber of the bomb calorimeter by one °C
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gibbs free energy
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ΔG = ΔH – TΔS, where ΔH = change in enthalpy and ΔS = change in entropy.
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enthalpy
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change in energy of a system.
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entropy
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change in chaos of a system.
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free energy
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change in spontaneity of a system.
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boiling point
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The point at which the vapor pressure of a liquid equals 1 atm.
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normal melting point
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The temperature at which the solid and liquid phases of a substance are in equilibrium at atmospheric pressure (760 mm Hg).
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grahams law of effusion
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The lighter a gas’s atomic weight, the faster it will escape a container.
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molarity
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mols/L; mmols/mL
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density
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d=m/V
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mass volume
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M₁V₁=M₂V₂
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molarity formula
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mol/V
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molality
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mol of solute/kg of solvent
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% mole fraction
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mass of solute/mass of solution volume of solute/volume of solution
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free energy using R
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G=-RTlnK
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nernst
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G=-nFE°cell
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find ph and poh
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pH+pOH=14.00
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half life
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ln(N/N₀)=-kt
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sum enthalpy
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H=€nHproducts-€nHreactants
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sum free energy
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G=€nGproducts-€nGreactants
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sum entropy
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S=€nSproducts-€nSreactants
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freezing point depression
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Tf=Kf*I*m
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boiling point peak
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Tb=Kb*I*m
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water constant
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[H₃O⁺][OH⁻]=Kw=1.0×10⁻¹⁴
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ph calculations
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pH=-log[H₃O⁺]
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poh calculations
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pOH=pK+log(base/acid)
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Kw calculations
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KaKb=Kw
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half life k constant
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t₀∙₅=0.693/k
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rate law
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Rate=kN
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energy
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E=mc²

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