Acc 270 – Ch 8

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goes public
answer

The first time a firm sells stock to the public; formally called an initial public stock offering (IPO).
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short
answer

An attempt to profit from a falling stock price. Sellers sell shares they don’t own with an obligation of later repayment. They do so in the hope that the price of sold shares will fall. They then repay share debt with shares purchased at a lower price and pocket the difference (spread) between initial share price and repayment price.
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dark Web
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Internet content that can’t be indexed by Google and other search engines.
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walled garden
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A closed network or single set of services controlled by one dominant firm.
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cloud
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A collection of resources available for access over the Internet.
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open source software (OSS)
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Software that is free and whose code can be accessed and potentially modified by anyone.
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content delivery networks (CDN)
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Systems distributed throughout the Internet (or other network) that help to improve the delivery (and hence loading) speeds of Web pages and other media, typically by spreading access across multiple sites located closer to users. Akamai is the largest one, helping firms like CNN and MTV quickly deliver photos, video, and other media worldwide.
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social graph
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The global mapping of users and organizations, and how they are connected.
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network effects
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Also known as Metcalfe’s Law, or network externalities. When the value of a product or service increases as its number of users expands.
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switching costs
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The cost a consumer incurs when moving from one product to another. It can involve actual money spent (e.g., buying a new product) as well as investments in time, any data loss, and so forth.
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application programming interfaces (APIs)
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Programming hooks, or guidelines, published by firms that tell other programs how to get a service to perform a task such as send or receive data. For example, Amazon.com provides APIs to let developers write their own applications and Websites that can send the firm orders.
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content adjacency
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Concern that an advertisement will run near offensive material, embarrassing an advertiser and/or degrading their products or brands.
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CPM
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Cost per thousand impressions.
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impression
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Each time an ad is served to a user for viewing.
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engagement ads
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Promotion technique popular with social media that attempts to get consumers to interact with an ad, then shares that action with friends.
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free rider problem
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When others take advantage of a user or service without providing any sort of reciprocal benefit.
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crowdsourcing
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The act of taking a job traditionally performed by a designated agent (usually an employee) and outsourcing it to an undefined generally large group of people in the form of an open call.
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localization
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Adapting products and services for different languages and regional differences.

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