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Abnormal Psychology Test Review 98 Core Concepts 2nd Edition Essay

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A causal pattern of abnormal behavior is known as
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etiology.
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A condition that guarantees the occurrence of a disorder is known as a _________ cause
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sufficient
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When Angie gets on an elevator, her pulse races. When several more people enter, it operates on her preexisting vulnerability for feeling anxious. This process is known as the ________ model.
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diathesis-stress
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To understand what is abnormal, one must have a good understanding of normal human development at biological, psychological, and sociocultural levels of analysis. This has been the focus of the rapidly growing field of
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developmental psychopathology.
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Colleen is a college student with an intense fear of the dark that causes her considerable distress and avoidance behavior. This would be considered a(n)
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phobia.
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The ______________ acknowledges that biological, psychological, and sociocultural factors all interact and play a role in psychopathology and treatment.
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biopsychosocial viewpoint
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Medications that facilitate the effects of a neurotransmitter on the postsynaptic neuron are called
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agonists.
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A nerve impulse is electrical in nature and travels from the cell body of a neuron down the
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axon.
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__________ has an effect on the way we think and process information, as well as on behaviors and moods. It also seems to play an important role in emotional disorders such as anxiety and depression.
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Serotonin
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Seth felt frightened when aggressively confronted by his brother and he retreated to his room. His __________ directly affect(s) target cells in various parts of his brain and body, influencing diverse events such as fight-or-flight.
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hormones
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________ provides negative feedback to the hypothalamus and pituitary to decrease their release of CRH and ACTH, which in turn reduces the release of adrenaline and cortisol.
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Cortisol
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Research has shown that there are three ways in which a child’s genotype may shape his or her environment. The ___________ effect is NOT one of those ways.
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implicit
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Petra was conducting a(n) __________ study. She organized two large groups of individuals, one group with schizophrenia and another group without schizophrenia. She then made note of the frequency of certain genetic markers and compared the two groups.
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association
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According to Freud, which component of the personality operates on the pleasure principle?
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id
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Kyra was harassed by her boss at work and when she got home, she immediately got into an argument with her husband. This is an example of the __________ ego-defense mechanism.
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displacement
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Marko, a three-year-old Romanian orphan, was adopted by an American couple. He has been kept in a playpen most of his childhood, with little interaction with others. Marko found it difficult to hug his new parents and would squirm off anyone’s lap. A theory that would explain his behavior would be Bowlby’s
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attachment theory.
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Which of the psychological viewpoints tends to take a less optimistic view of human beings and places more emphasis on a person’s irrational tendencies?
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existential
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A conditioned response may return at some future point in time, a phenomenon Pavlov called
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spontaneous recovery.
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In __________ conditioning, an individual learns how to achieve a desired goal. It may be to obtain something that is rewarding or to escape from something that is unpleasant.
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instrumental (operant)
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Jeremiah is a(n) _______________. He believes that maladaptive behavior is the result of learning that has gone awry.
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behavior therapist
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The _______________ perspective focuses on how thoughts and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior.
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cognitive-behavioral
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The four categories of psychological causal factors that can lead to a detrimental effect on a child’s socioemotional development include which of the following?
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early deprivation or trauma, inadequate parenting styles, marital discord and divorce, and maladaptive peer relationships
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Four types of parenting styles have been identified that seem to be related to different developmental outcomes for the children. Research has found that the __________ parenting style is associated with the most positive early social development.
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authoritative
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According to studies by Kleinman, people in China are more likely to react to stress by showing
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physical problems, such as fatigue.
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A number of studies have documented a strong relationship between the parents’ poverty and the effects on their children. Which of these is NOT an effect on children of persistent poverty?
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greater resiliency
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A __________ cause may not be a necessary cause. For example, hopelessness is not a necessary cause of depression; there are other causes of depression as well.
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sufficient
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Some causal factors occurring relatively early in life may not show their effects for many years; these would be considered __________ causal factors that may contribute to predisposition to develop a disorder.
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distal
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Many mental disorders are believed to develop when some kind of stressor operates on a person who has a(n) __________ or vulnerability for that disorder.
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diathesis
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Protective __________ include an easy-going temperament, high self-esteem, high intelligence, and school achievement, all of which can help protect against a variety of stressors.
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attributes
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It is estimated that about ________ out of every 1,000 children are victims of abuse or neglect.
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12
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Four parenting styles have been identified that relate to different developmental outcomes for children. These styles vary in their degrees of parental
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warmth and control.
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Which parenting style has the greater degree of parental control, resulting in children who are conflicted, irritable, and moody?
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authoritarian
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It is estimated that as many as ________ of teenagers who use the Internet engage in cyberbullying.
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1/3
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_____________ are chemical messengers secreted by a set of endocrine glands in the body.
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Hormones
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The result from the interaction of the __________ and the environment is referred to as a person’s phenotype.
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genotype
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Nina is an extraverted child who seeks the company of others, which enhances her own tendency to be sociable. This is an example of
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niche building.
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Jeremiah laughs and coos when his mother sits in the chair across the room from him. Sara cries and rubs her eyes in frustration when her mother sits in the chair across the room from her. These are examples of
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temperament.
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Which theory is connected with Bowlby’s idea that early experience lays the foundation for later functioning?
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attachment
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___________ focus on the effects of environmental conditions (stimuli) on the acquisition, modification, and possible elimination of various types of response patterns, both adaptive and maladaptive.
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Behaviorists
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After Susan ate the red strawberry, she decided to try the green one and quickly realized that the green was not as tasty as the red. Avoiding the green strawberries in the future is a result of
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conditioned discrimination.
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A __________ is an underlying representation of knowledge that guides current information processing and many times leads to distortions in attention, memory, and comprehension.
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schema
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The _______________ is the best validated, and most widely used test that has been adapted for use in many cultures.
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Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
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The prevalence of major depressive disorder varies widely across the cultures of the world. In a recent study conducted in ten countries around the world, the prevalence ranged from ____ in Japan to nearly 17% in the United States.
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3%
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In Western societies, it is most common for individual stress to lead to
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depression.
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Studies have found that in Thailand, adults are highly intolerant of __________ behavior such as aggression, disobedience, and disrespectful acts in their children.
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undercontrolled
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The more complex the phenomenon being investigated, the greater the number of viewpoints that develop in an attempt to explain it, although inevitably they are not all equally
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valid.
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The biopsychosocial viewpoint acknowledges that biological, psychological, and __________ factors all interact and play a role in psychopathology and treatment.
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sociocultural
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_________ helped shift the focus of abnormal psychology from biological illness to unconscious mental processes within the person.
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Freud
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Over the past few years, there have been three shifts in focus that parallel the study of abnormal behavior. Which one of these is NOT included in these shifts?
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There has been a return to the advent of classical conditioning in an effort to understand abnormal behavior.
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Christy’s husband asked for a divorce. She didn’t know he was having an affair. This could increase the probability that later she may have difficulty in handling close personal relationships. It could be said that the divorce might be a _________ cause for Christy’s later difficulties.
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contributory
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One theory hypothesizes that hopelessness (X) is a ___________ cause of depression (Y).
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sufficient
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Karina’s therapist told her that she had a predisposition toward developing schizophrenia. This is also known as a(n)
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diathesis.
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What is considered to be one of the more important protective factors in childhood?
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at least one parent who is warm and supportive
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The site of communication between the axon of one neuron and the dendrites or cell body of another neuron is the
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synapse.
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Some of the functions of __________ include pleasure and cognitive processing. It has been implicated in addictions and schizophrenia.
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dopamine
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Mental disorders are often influenced by naturally occurring variations of genes known as
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polymorphisms.
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The pedigree method of studying genetic influences requires the investigator to
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observe samples of relatives of each index case to see whether the incidence increases in proportion to the degree of heredity.
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Teenage-onset juvenile delinquency tends to run in families and yet this seems to be due primarily to __________ rather than genetic influences.
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environmental
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Even though they are identical twins, Jill and Lill are in two different classrooms at school and participate in different activities after school. Jill and Lill experience ________ environmental influences.
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nonshared
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Some babies are startled by bright sunlight while others smile happily when sunshine hits their faces. This is an example of each baby’s
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temperament.
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Based on Freud’s theory, after the first few months of life, a second part of the personality develops. It is known as the
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ego.
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Based on Freud’s psychoanalytic theory, the ___________ is responsible for internalizing the moral values of society concerning what is right and wrong.
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superego
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The oral stage of psychosexual development occurs from
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birth to age 2.
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When Martin was five-years-old, he nearly drowned in his neighbor’s swimming pool. Ever since then, he has shown a fear of water. This is known as a(n)
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conditioned avoidance response.
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Which of the following is an example of an intermittent reinforcer?
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Jack continued to play roulette because he had won three of the seven times.
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Nathan is scared of bees and now is frightened and runs away from any flying insect. This demonstrates a(n)
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generalization.
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People’s __________ includes views on who they are, what they might become and what is important to them.
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self-schema
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Who is considered the founder of cognitive therapy?
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Beck
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Whose viewpoint would say that parental deprivation might interfere with the development of basic trust?
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Erikson
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Bill and Linda give their children plenty of love but little discipline or limits on their behavior. Their parenting style is
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permissive.
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Studies show that there appear to be two types of children who are rejected by their peers. These two types include those who are
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too aggressive and very withdrawn.
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The ______________ is recognized as the best validated and most widely used test for personality disorders.
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MMPI
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When comparing behaviors of children in Thailand and America, it was found that adults in Thailand are ______________ a child’s undercontrolled behavior such as aggression.
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highly intolerant of
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Rates of depression, marital problems, and somatic (bodily) complaints _______ during periods of unemployment.
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increase
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Cindy never felt close to her father growing up. As a young woman, she finds it difficult to establish relationships with men. The parental rejection she felt is a __________ cause for her difficulties as an adult.
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contributory
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Miguel’s therapist believed that because his father had passed away when Miguel was only six, it may have predisposed him to the depression he was now experiencing as an adult. This is an example of a(n) ___________ causal factor.
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distal
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Sandra was able to complete her high school degree despite the fact that her parents are alcoholics and she has little support at home. Sandra is demonstrating
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resilience.
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The chemical substance that is released into the synapse when a nerve impulse occurs is called the
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neurotransmitter.
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The chain-like structure that contains the genes is called
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chromosomes.
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Identical twins have the same
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genotype.
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The result from the interaction of the genotype and the environment is referred to as a person’s
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phenotype.
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Which of these is NOT one of the three primary methods that have traditionally been used in behavior genetics or in the study of heritability of mental disorders?
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association method
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When researchers conduct a large family pedigree study on schizophrenia and keep track of hair color of each individual in the study, it is a(n) __________ analysis.
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linkage
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The _____________ approach recognizes that genetic activity influences neural activity, which influences behavior, which in turn influences the environment. In addition, all these influences are bidirectional.
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developmental systems
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During the __________ stage of psychosexual development, sexual motivations recede in importance.
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latency
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Robert is 37-years-old and unmarried. He still depends on his mother to do his laundry, clean his room and cook his meals. Which ego defense mechanism is in use?
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fixation
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The _______________ theory focuses on an individual’s interactions with real and imagined other people.
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object-relations
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According to __________, a child’s real development centers on learning either “basic trust” or “basic mistrust.”
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Erikson
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Behavioral psychologists believed that the use of free association and dream analysis did not provide acceptable scientific data because these observations were
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not open to verification by other investigators.
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In classical and instrumental conditioning, the process complementary to generalization is
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discrimination.
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When Mariel was asked what her phone number was when she was a child, she couldn’t recall the number. Yet, when she picked up a phone, she was able to dial the number correctly. This is an example of
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implicit memory.
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__________, a cognitive therapist, might interpret the negative consequences of parental deprivation as the child acquiring dysfunctional schemas and self-schemas in which relationships are represented as unstable, untrustworthy, and without affection.
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Beck
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The __________ parenting style is used by Kim and Kevin. They are very controlling and their mannerisms toward their children appear quite cold.
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authoritarian
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Malik’s parents were the only ones who never attended the basketball games, or came to any school functions. They were not supportive of Malik. This is an example of the ______ parenting style.
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neglectful
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There is evidence that _______ are more likely to benefit from divorce.
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women
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Carol could appreciate Mary’s frustrating situation because Carol also had a mother who was very ill and young children to take care of. Carol is demonstrating
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empathy.
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In society, there is a(n) ____________ correlation between socioeconomic class and the incidence of mental disorders.
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inverse
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Kleinman and Good are urging authors of the DSM-IV-TR to include _________ as a new axis in the diagnostic system.
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cultural factors