Abnormal Psychology: Final Exam Study Guide

Abstinence Violation Effect
Refers to the guilt and perceived loss of control that a person feels whenever he or she slips and finds himself or herself returning to drug use after an extended period of abstinence.

Advantages and Disadvantages of Psychotherapy
Advantages: improvement of psychological disorders Disadvantage: improvement may not happen, improvement may occur without professional intervention, takes 21-40 sessions to see significant change

Alcohol Amnestic Disorder
*Memory defect* Appear disoriented and delusional Planning deficits, emotional deficits, and intellectual decline Brain cortical lesions Symptoms may be due to vitamin B deficiency

Alcohol Withdrawal Delirium
Disorientation, hallucinations, fear, extreme suggestibility, tremors, perspiration, fever, weak heart beat Can last up to 3-6 days followed by a deep sleep usually Death = from convulsions, heart failure, and other complications

Amphetamine Psychosis
Typically occurs following an overdose on stimulants, but it also occurs in approximately 0.1% of individuals within the first several weeks after starting amphetamine or methylphenidate therapy Amphetamines may induce symptoms of psychosis very similar to those of acute schizophrenia spectrum psychosis

Antabuse
Disulfiram. Medication for alcohol-related problems -blocks the desire to drink by causing vomiting when alcohol is ingested

Autogynephilia
Paraphilia characterized by a man’s sexual arousal at the thought of being a woman

Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
Type of cognitive behavioral therapy Problems like depression result from clients’ illogical thinking about themselves and the world around them

Behavior Therapy
Direct and active treatment Recognizes primacy of behavior Acknowledges role of learning Includes thorough assessment and evaluation Exposure therapy, aversion, modeling, systematic reinforcement, token economy Directed toward specific symptom Often used with anxiety disorders

Clang Associations
Association of words based upon sound rather than concepts. For example, this may include compulsive rhyming or alliteration without apparent logical connection between words.

Cocaine
Stimulant Increase feelings of alertness and confidence, decrease feelings of fatigue Addictive and may result in brain damage/psychopathology from long term use

Cognitive-Behavior Therapy
Attempts to change behavior by modifying self statements Modifying construals of events Cognitive processes influence emotions, motivation, and behavior REBT, Beck’s cognitive, and efficacy of cognitive therapy

Delusional Disorder
Delusions without other aspects of schizophrenia Primary types: erotomanic; grandiose; jealous; persecutory; somatic; mixed Delusions that are contrary to reality without other major schizophrenia symptoms Many show other negative symptoms of schizophrenia Type of delusions include erotomanic, grandiose, jealous, persecutory, and somatic

Delusions
Certainty of beliefs Self-monitoring (awareness of others’ perceptions) Emotional commitment to the belief Explanation of differing views Fixity of ideas Insight

“Dementia Praecox”
A chronic, deteriorating psychotic disorder characterized by rapid cognitive disintegration, usually beginning in the late teens or early adulthood.

Disorganized Schizophrenia
Marked disruptions in speech and behavior, flat or inappropriate affect Hallucinations and delusions have a theme, but tend to be fragmented This type develops early, tends to be chronic, and lacks periods of remissions

Ecstasy
Hallucinogen and stimulant chemically similar to meth Rush and well-being and serious adverse consequences Popular in young adults

Fetishism
Sexual attraction to nonliving objects (i.e., inanimate and/or tactile) Numerous targets of fetishistic arousal, fantasy, urges, and desires

Gender Dysphoria
Person feels trapped in a body of the wrong sex; incongruence between one’s experienced/expressed gender and assigned gender Assume identity of the desired sex, but the goal is not sexual Gender identity develops between 18 months and 3 years of age Discomfort with assigned gender or sex-relevant to physical characteristics

Hallucinations
Sensory experience Seems real but occurs in absence of any external perceptual stimulus

Hallucinogens
Diverse group of drugs in cause alteration of perception, thought, and mood Cause individual to see or hear things in a different or unusual way LSD, ecstasy, mescaline, psilocybin, marijuana

Human Sexual Response (Phases)
Desire phase Excitement phase Orgasm phase Resolution phase

Korsakoff’s Psychosis
A serious mental illness, typically the result of chronic alcoholism, characterized by disorientation and a tendency to invent explanations to cover a loss of memory of recent events

LSD Effects
Delusions, visual hallucinations, sense of euphoria, loss of appetite, dilated pupils, higher/lower body temperature

Masochism
Suffering pain or humiliation to attain sexual gratification

Methadone
Synthetic narcotic related to heroin; used in the treatment of heroin addiction because it satisfies the craving for heroin without producing serious psychological impairment

Naltrexone
Medication treatment for alcohol Blocks desire to drink by reducing the craving for alcohol

Negative and Positive Symptoms of Schizophrenia
Positive = Delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and thought, and disorganized or catatonic behavior Negative = effective blunting or flattening, severe reduction in or absence of speech (alogia), and lack of goal-directed activity (avolition)

Neologism
A newly coined word or expression

“Normal” vs. “Abnormal” Sexual Behavior
Gender differences taken into account Cultural differences The four phases of sexual behavior

Onset of Schizophrenia
Onset usually in late adolescence/early adulthood May be earlier in males

Paranoid Schizophrenia
Intact cognitive skills and affect, and do not show disorganized behavior Hallucinations and delusions center around a theme (grandeur or persecution)

Paraphilia’s
Sexual attraction and arousal to inappropriate people or objects Group of persistent sexual behavior patterns in which unusual objects, rituals, or situations are required to fulfill sexual satisfaction

Pathological Gambling
Similar to chemical addiction in several ways: Personality factors, Difficulties attributable to compulsive gambling Treatment problems Causal Factors: Learned pattern, Resistant to extinction, “Compulsive”, Thrill-seeking, superstitious, antisocial, immature, and rebellious, Comorbidity with other disorders, particularly substance abuse

Prevalence of Schizophrenia
Affects 1% of population Similar prevalence for males and females

Psychosis (definition)
A severe mental disorder in which thought and emotions are so impaired contact is lost with external reality

Psychotherapy
The treatment of mental disorder by psychological rather than medical means

Psychotherapy Relationship
The key element of an effective working alliance includes: Sense of working collaboratively on a problem, Agreement between patient and therapist about goals and tasks, An affective bond between patient and therapist

Sadism
Inflicting pain or humiliation to attain sexual gratification

Schizoaffective Disorder
Symptoms of schizophrenia and a mood disorder (e.g., bipolar disorder) Prognosis is similar for people with schizophrenia Such persons do not tend to get better on their own

Schizophrenia Symptoms and Impact upon Functioning
Disorganized speech, disorganized affect (inappropriate emotional behavior) and disorganized behavior (unusual behavior) Impairment of verbal learning, attention, visual organization, vocabulary, skills for community functioning, impaired areas of communication, social impact, ability to recognize emotional cues in others, difficulty understanding others’ speech, decreased coordination, abnormal thought content, etc.

Skills Training
Goal setting, self-talk, mental imagery and mental rehearsal, and relaxation Teaching, or developing in oneself or others, any skills and knowledge that relate to specific useful competencies. Training has specific goals of improving one’s capability, capacity, productivity and performance. Used in therapy

Sexual Arousal Disorders
Erectile Disorder: May be based on anxiety about sexual performance or physiological dysfunction Early Ejaculation Disorder: Persistent and recurrent orgasm and ejaculation with little sexual stimulation Female Arousal Disorder: Low sexual desire and low sexual arousal Female Orgasmic Disorder: Persistent or recurrent delay in or absence of orgasm following normal sexual excitement phase