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Abnormal Psych Final

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Treatment for mental illness in the early asylums tended to be
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harsh and cruel.
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The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that
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mental illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness.
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The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems t have been the MOST successful was the use of
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various medications.
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The use of exorcism suggests a belief that mental illness was caused by
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evil spirits.
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The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was
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hypnotism.
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One major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists
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have graduated from medical school.
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The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the
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biological model.
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The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the
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sociocultural model.
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The model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the
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behavioral model.
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Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called
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synapses.
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The ___ operates in accord with the pleasure principle.
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id
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The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses is the
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ego.
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What we call “conscience” is closest to what Freud called the
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superego.
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Depression has been linked to which neruotransmitter abnormality?
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low activity of serotonin and norepinephrine
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You blame your poor performance on a test you didn’t study for on all other work you had to do. The defense mechanism that BEST explains your behavior is
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rationalization.
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When a young child yells and throws toys (“temper tantrum”), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from
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operant conditioning.
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Which of the following statements would a critic of the behavioral model be MOST likely to say?
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Behavioral models are too simplistic; people are complicated.
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A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a
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conditioned stimulus.
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A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?
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systematic desensitatation
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List and define the 4 D’s used by Comer that we discussed in class.
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Deviance – is it abnormal? Distress – is the patient mentally or physically upset? Dysfunction – is the patient able to live a productive life? Danger – is the person in danger?
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List 2 of the myths of mental illness that we discussed in class.
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1. People who have been in a mental hospital are more dangerous than other people in society. 2. Mental illness is not actually a sickness and shouldn’t be treated as seriously. If you have a mental illness it is something to be ashamed of.
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Today, ___ clinical psychology is the MOST popular theoretical orientation among professional psychologists.
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eclectic
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An athlete who is actually well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, “I can’t do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I’m going to fail!” The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance MOST likely would support which model of abnormality?
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cognitive
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The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the
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human-existential model.
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If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed
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unconditional self-regard.
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If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to
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show unconditional positive regard for her statements.
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The model of abnormality that pays particularly attention to a client’s family structure, societal norms, and a client’s roles in society is
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sociocultural.
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Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on
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the special external pressures faced by members of a culture.
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Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?
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Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences.
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The diathesis-stress model of abnormality emphasizes that
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abnormality arises from an interaction between stress and predisposition.
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Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is
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standardization.
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An interviewer who asks a client questions such as “Where are you now?,” “Why do you think you’re here?,” or even “Who are you?” is probably conducting a
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mental status exam.
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The assumption behind the use of protective tests as assessment tools is that
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the responses come from the clients unconscious.
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Compared to projective tests, personality inventories
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have higher validity.
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Which category of clinical tests tends to have the BEST standardization, reliability, and validity?
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intelligence tests
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The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-5) was developed by
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the American Psychiatric Association.
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Compared to the original DSM, which appeared in the 1050s, the DSM-5 has
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over five times as many diagnostic categories.
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Therapies that have received clear research support are called
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evidence-based
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Patients receiving therapy for a psychological problem, on average, experience improvement greater than ___ of people with similar problems who do not receive treatment.
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75 percent
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Are people ever harmed by therapy for DSM-diagnosed disorders?
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sometimes; at most, about 5-10 percent of those treated seem to get worse.
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In class we talked about some dangers of diagnosis and some advantages of diagnosis in the area of mental disorders. List 2 of these dangers and 2 advantages.
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Danger: self-fulfilling prophesy, social stigmas created Advantages: Creates short hand way to discuss patients without having to list every symptom, helps in treatment (collaboration, base of research to suggest best practices, gives a basic idea of treatment structure)
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We also discussed DSM-5 in class. State two major changes that were made in DSM-5.
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1. DSM-5 got rid of the axes. 2. DSM-5 got rid of Aspergers and created autism specturm
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Fear differs from anxiety in that
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fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more vague.
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The MOST common mental disorders in the United States are the
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anxiety disorders.
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Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a
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panic disorder.
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Leila always feels threatened and anxious — imagining something awful is about to happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, although not as well as she would like. Leila is probably experiencing
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a generalized anxiety disorder.
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Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as caused by the development of defense mechanisms for ego protection?
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the psychodynamic approach
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“Phobic and generalized anxiety disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves honestly and with acceptance, and instead deny and distort their true thoughts, emotions, and behavior.” This explanation for anxiety disorders would most likely be offered by
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humanistic theorists.
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Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with conditions of worth?
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Carl Rogers’ client-centered theory
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Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by
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maladaptive assumptions.
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Chapter nine test three
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yep