Abnormal Psych Final – Flashcards

question
Treatment for mental illness in the early asylums tended to be
answer
harsh and cruel.
question
The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that
answer
mental illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness.
question
The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems t have been the MOST successful was the use of
answer
various medications.
question
The use of exorcism suggests a belief that mental illness was caused by
answer
evil spirits.
question
The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was
answer
hypnotism.
question
One major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists
answer
have graduated from medical school.
question
The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the
answer
biological model.
question
The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the
answer
sociocultural model.
question
The model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the
answer
behavioral model.
question
Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called
answer
synapses.
question
The ___ operates in accord with the pleasure principle.
answer
id
question
The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses is the
answer
ego.
question
What we call "conscience" is closest to what Freud called the
answer
superego.
question
Depression has been linked to which neruotransmitter abnormality?
answer
low activity of serotonin and norepinephrine
question
You blame your poor performance on a test you didn't study for on all other work you had to do. The defense mechanism that BEST explains your behavior is
answer
rationalization.
question
When a young child yells and throws toys ("temper tantrum"), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from
answer
operant conditioning.
question
Which of the following statements would a critic of the behavioral model be MOST likely to say?
answer
Behavioral models are too simplistic; people are complicated.
question
A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a
answer
conditioned stimulus.
question
A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?
answer
systematic desensitatation
question
List and define the 4 D's used by Comer that we discussed in class.
answer
Deviance - is it abnormal? Distress - is the patient mentally or physically upset? Dysfunction - is the patient able to live a productive life? Danger - is the person in danger?
question
List 2 of the myths of mental illness that we discussed in class.
answer
1. People who have been in a mental hospital are more dangerous than other people in society. 2. Mental illness is not actually a sickness and shouldn't be treated as seriously. If you have a mental illness it is something to be ashamed of.
question
Today, ___ clinical psychology is the MOST popular theoretical orientation among professional psychologists.
answer
eclectic
question
An athlete who is actually well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, "I can't do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I'm going to fail!" The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance MOST likely would support which model of abnormality?
answer
cognitive
question
The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the
answer
human-existential model.
question
If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed
answer
unconditional self-regard.
question
If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to
answer
show unconditional positive regard for her statements.
question
The model of abnormality that pays particularly attention to a client's family structure, societal norms, and a client's roles in society is
answer
sociocultural.
question
Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on
answer
the special external pressures faced by members of a culture.
question
Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?
answer
Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences.
question
The diathesis-stress model of abnormality emphasizes that
answer
abnormality arises from an interaction between stress and predisposition.
question
Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is
answer
standardization.
question
An interviewer who asks a client questions such as "Where are you now?," "Why do you think you're here?," or even "Who are you?" is probably conducting a
answer
mental status exam.
question
The assumption behind the use of protective tests as assessment tools is that
answer
the responses come from the clients unconscious.
question
Compared to projective tests, personality inventories
answer
have higher validity.
question
Which category of clinical tests tends to have the BEST standardization, reliability, and validity?
answer
intelligence tests
question
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-5) was developed by
answer
the American Psychiatric Association.
question
Compared to the original DSM, which appeared in the 1050s, the DSM-5 has
answer
over five times as many diagnostic categories.
question
Therapies that have received clear research support are called
answer
evidence-based
question
Patients receiving therapy for a psychological problem, on average, experience improvement greater than ___ of people with similar problems who do not receive treatment.
answer
75 percent
question
Are people ever harmed by therapy for DSM-diagnosed disorders?
answer
sometimes; at most, about 5-10 percent of those treated seem to get worse.
question
In class we talked about some dangers of diagnosis and some advantages of diagnosis in the area of mental disorders. List 2 of these dangers and 2 advantages.
answer
Danger: self-fulfilling prophesy, social stigmas created Advantages: Creates short hand way to discuss patients without having to list every symptom, helps in treatment (collaboration, base of research to suggest best practices, gives a basic idea of treatment structure)
question
We also discussed DSM-5 in class. State two major changes that were made in DSM-5.
answer
1. DSM-5 got rid of the axes. 2. DSM-5 got rid of Aspergers and created autism specturm
question
Fear differs from anxiety in that
answer
fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more vague.
question
The MOST common mental disorders in the United States are the
answer
anxiety disorders.
question
Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a
answer
panic disorder.
question
Leila always feels threatened and anxious -- imagining something awful is about to happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, although not as well as she would like. Leila is probably experiencing
answer
a generalized anxiety disorder.
question
Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as caused by the development of defense mechanisms for ego protection?
answer
the psychodynamic approach
question
"Phobic and generalized anxiety disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves honestly and with acceptance, and instead deny and distort their true thoughts, emotions, and behavior." This explanation for anxiety disorders would most likely be offered by
answer
humanistic theorists.
question
Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with conditions of worth?
answer
Carl Rogers' client-centered theory
question
Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by
answer
maladaptive assumptions.
question
Chapter nine test three
answer
yep
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question
Treatment for mental illness in the early asylums tended to be
answer
harsh and cruel.
question
The basis for moral treatment of asylum patients was the belief that
answer
mental illness should be treated with sympathy and kindness.
question
The somatogenic treatment for mental illness that seems t have been the MOST successful was the use of
answer
various medications.
question
The use of exorcism suggests a belief that mental illness was caused by
answer
evil spirits.
question
The early psychogenic treatment that was advocated by Josef Breuer and Sigmund Freud was
answer
hypnotism.
question
One major difference between psychiatrists and clinical psychologists is that psychiatrists
answer
have graduated from medical school.
question
The model of abnormality that cites physical processes as being the key to behavior is the
answer
biological model.
question
The model of abnormality that examines the effects of society and culture is the
answer
sociocultural model.
question
The model of abnormality that focuses on learning is the
answer
behavioral model.
question
Messages moving from neuron to neuron must cross tiny spaces called
answer
synapses.
question
The ___ operates in accord with the pleasure principle.
answer
id
question
The part of the personality that guides us to know when we can and cannot express our impulses is the
answer
ego.
question
What we call "conscience" is closest to what Freud called the
answer
superego.
question
Depression has been linked to which neruotransmitter abnormality?
answer
low activity of serotonin and norepinephrine
question
You blame your poor performance on a test you didn't study for on all other work you had to do. The defense mechanism that BEST explains your behavior is
answer
rationalization.
question
When a young child yells and throws toys ("temper tantrum"), the parents give the child a good deal of attention. As time goes on, the temper tantrums become more and more common. A behavioral psychologist would say that the temper tantrums result from
answer
operant conditioning.
question
Which of the following statements would a critic of the behavioral model be MOST likely to say?
answer
Behavioral models are too simplistic; people are complicated.
question
A previously neutral environmental event that becomes associated with the unconditioned stimulus is called a
answer
conditioned stimulus.
question
A client in a totally relaxed state vividly imagines formerly anxiety-arousing situations without feeling any lingering anxiety. Most likely, that client has just completed what type of therapy?
answer
systematic desensitatation
question
List and define the 4 D's used by Comer that we discussed in class.
answer
Deviance - is it abnormal? Distress - is the patient mentally or physically upset? Dysfunction - is the patient able to live a productive life? Danger - is the person in danger?
question
List 2 of the myths of mental illness that we discussed in class.
answer
1. People who have been in a mental hospital are more dangerous than other people in society. 2. Mental illness is not actually a sickness and shouldn't be treated as seriously. If you have a mental illness it is something to be ashamed of.
question
Today, ___ clinical psychology is the MOST popular theoretical orientation among professional psychologists.
answer
eclectic
question
An athlete who is actually well-prepared nevertheless thinks just before a contest, "I can't do this! I need to be perfect, and I know I'm going to fail!" The theorist who would emphasize the illogical thinking process of this athlete as a source of poor performance MOST likely would support which model of abnormality?
answer
cognitive
question
The model that proposes that humans strive to self-actualize is the
answer
human-existential model.
question
If you recognize your worth as a person, Carl Rogers would say that you have developed
answer
unconditional self-regard.
question
If a client-centered therapist were treating a very anxious woman, the therapist would try to
answer
show unconditional positive regard for her statements.
question
The model of abnormality that pays particularly attention to a client's family structure, societal norms, and a client's roles in society is
answer
sociocultural.
question
Current multicultural perspectives are MOST likely to focus on
answer
the special external pressures faced by members of a culture.
question
Which of the following statements is the BEST example of the biopsychosocial perspective?
answer
Abnormality results from the interaction of genetic, emotional, and cultural influences.
question
The diathesis-stress model of abnormality emphasizes that
answer
abnormality arises from an interaction between stress and predisposition.
question
Another term for developing norms for an assessment tool is
answer
standardization.
question
An interviewer who asks a client questions such as "Where are you now?," "Why do you think you're here?," or even "Who are you?" is probably conducting a
answer
mental status exam.
question
The assumption behind the use of protective tests as assessment tools is that
answer
the responses come from the clients unconscious.
question
Compared to projective tests, personality inventories
answer
have higher validity.
question
Which category of clinical tests tends to have the BEST standardization, reliability, and validity?
answer
intelligence tests
question
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (presently DSM-5) was developed by
answer
the American Psychiatric Association.
question
Compared to the original DSM, which appeared in the 1050s, the DSM-5 has
answer
over five times as many diagnostic categories.
question
Therapies that have received clear research support are called
answer
evidence-based
question
Patients receiving therapy for a psychological problem, on average, experience improvement greater than ___ of people with similar problems who do not receive treatment.
answer
75 percent
question
Are people ever harmed by therapy for DSM-diagnosed disorders?
answer
sometimes; at most, about 5-10 percent of those treated seem to get worse.
question
In class we talked about some dangers of diagnosis and some advantages of diagnosis in the area of mental disorders. List 2 of these dangers and 2 advantages.
answer
Danger: self-fulfilling prophesy, social stigmas created Advantages: Creates short hand way to discuss patients without having to list every symptom, helps in treatment (collaboration, base of research to suggest best practices, gives a basic idea of treatment structure)
question
We also discussed DSM-5 in class. State two major changes that were made in DSM-5.
answer
1. DSM-5 got rid of the axes. 2. DSM-5 got rid of Aspergers and created autism specturm
question
Fear differs from anxiety in that
answer
fear is to a specific threat and anxiety is more vague.
question
The MOST common mental disorders in the United States are the
answer
anxiety disorders.
question
Every once in a while, Ona feels nervous to the point of terror. It seems to come on suddenly and randomly. Her experience is an example of a
answer
panic disorder.
question
Leila always feels threatened and anxious -- imagining something awful is about to happen. But she is able to work and care for her family, although not as well as she would like. Leila is probably experiencing
answer
a generalized anxiety disorder.
question
Which theoretical position explains the origin of anxiety disorders as caused by the development of defense mechanisms for ego protection?
answer
the psychodynamic approach
question
"Phobic and generalized anxiety disorders arise when people stop looking at themselves honestly and with acceptance, and instead deny and distort their true thoughts, emotions, and behavior." This explanation for anxiety disorders would most likely be offered by
answer
humanistic theorists.
question
Which theory states that people develop generalized anxiety disorders because they failed to receive unconditional positive regard as children and evaluate themselves with conditions of worth?
answer
Carl Rogers' client-centered theory
question
Cognitive therapists believe that generalized anxiety disorder is induced by
answer
maladaptive assumptions.
question
Chapter nine test three
answer
yep