Abnormal Psych Exam 1 Essay

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Different vs Deviant Behaviors
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Different: ind posessing abilities that distinguish them from the general public Deviant: Behavior straying from societal norm
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Statistical Norm
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How common or rare it is in the population
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Abnormal Psych
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1) Inconsistent with societal norms 2)Inconsistent with cultural norms 3)Emotional Distress 4)Inconsistent with developmental norms 5)Harmful dysfunction: interferes with daily functioning
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Epimidiology
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focuses on the prevalence and incidence of mental disorder
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Prevalance
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number of cases of a disorder in a given point of time
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Point Prevalance
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Number of individual with a disorder at a specific period of time
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Lifetime Prevalance
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Number of individuals known to have disorders at any point in their lifetime
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Incidence
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number of new cases that emerge in a given population during a specified period of timw
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Comorbidity
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The presence of more than one condition within the same period of time
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Disease Burden
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measured by combining two factors: 1)Mortality 2)Disability
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Clinical Psychologist
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perform many roles: direct clinical services, research, teaching and administrative activities
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Psychiatry
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branch of medicine concerned with the study and treatment of mental disorder prescribe psychotropic meds
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clinical psychology
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concerned with the application of psychological science to the assessment and treatment of mental disorders
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Social Worker
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concerned with helping people achieve an effective level of psychosocial functioning
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Ancient theories
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believed spirits controlled much of the environment inc. aspects of one behavior
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Trepination
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method used to create a hole in the skull to release evil spirits
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Classical Greek and Roman View
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Env. factors, physical factors, and four humor (yellow bile, black bile, blood, phlegm)
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Asylum
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Insane asylums established in 1600s and 1700s to separate the mentally ill from the normals
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Case Study
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An in-depth look at the symptoms and circumstances surrounding one person’s mental disturbance Drawback: 1)can be viewed from several different perspective 2)risky to draw general conclusions
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Critical Thinking
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Basic goal in science
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Psychopathology
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the scientific study of mental disorders.
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psychosis
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A severe mental disorder in which thoughts and emotions are so impaired that it loses contact with reality. ex: schizophrenia
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Syndrome
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A group of symptoms that usually occur together
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DSM 1V
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Standard classification of disorder used in the US. Other countries use ICD
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Cross Culture Studies
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Uses field data from many societies to determine the scope of human behavior and test hypotheses of human behavior
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Etiology
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the cause of the disorder
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Biopsychosocial model
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Disorder is rooted from many causes An approach to integrating many factors into the cause of a specific disorder which differs for everyone
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Biological Paradigm
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biological abnormalities cause the disorder
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Psychodynamic
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Abnormal behavior is caused by deeply rooted from childhood that conflicts within oneself
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Freud
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Viewed early childhood experiences, especially relate to forbidden topics, a shaping personality & emotional health
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Defense Mechanism
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1)Denial: an experience, memory that did not occur 2)Displacement: is to release pent up feeling to something/one less threatening 3)Projection:Attributing own feeling or behavior to someone else 4)Rationalization:Intellectually justifying a feeling or event 5)Reaction Formation: expressing the opposite of a feeling 6)Repression:Suppress uncomfortable feeling but without denial 7)Sublimation: converting id impulses to something more acceptable
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Cognitive Behavior Paradigm
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Behavior is the product of learning. Can be changed by operant or classical conditioning
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Humanistic Paradigm
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People can achieve full potential with unconditional positive regard Therapy centers around the client and what they think they think they need to do.
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Systems Theory
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All the paradigms are interdependent. No one paradigm is the ‘right’ approach
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Holism
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Assume that the whole is more than the sum of the parts
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Reductionalism
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Assumes that the whole and the sum of the parts can be understood by understanding the small components
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Causality
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When you examine the many causes of the disorder instead of just one specific reason
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Equifinity
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There’re many factors that lead to one outcome
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Multifinity
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One factor could lead to many outcome
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Diathesis-Stress Model
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Diathesis: A predisposition that could lead to a certain disorder. Stress:A difficult life factor
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Reciprocal Causality
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The direction of causality could be both ways and could be unclear
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Correlation
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identifies variable and look for the relationship between them a statistical measure of how closely related variables are
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Experiments
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Establish cause and effect
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Emotion
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State of arousal that is defined by subjective states of feeling that might be accompanied by psychological changes
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affect
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pattern of behavior that is associated with emotion Facial changes, hand and body gestures
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Clinical Depression
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depressed mood that is accompanied by several other symptoms change in appetite, fatigue, changes in sleeping pattern
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Mania
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disturbance in mood, where people feel extremely euphoric
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Mood Disorders
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Defined by episodes
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Episodes
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Discrete period of time in which the person’s behavior is dominated by either a depressed or manic mood
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Major Depressive Disorder
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Persistent sadness or low mood that interferes with daily processes and could affect a person’s interest in activities that they usually enjoy
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Bipolar Disorder
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episodes of depression or mania
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Beck’s Depressive Triad
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Focus on the negative side of self, environment and the future
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Psychomotor retardation
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visible slowing of physical activity such as walking and talking
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Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia)
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Chronic state of depression that lasts 2 years or more May have double depression (was later diagnosed with MDD)
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Premenstrual Dysphoric Disorder
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More severe form of premenstrual syndrome
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Bipolar 1
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must have atleast one manic episode which lasts a week
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Bipolar 2
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experienced one depressive episode and one hypomanic episode, but no full blown mania
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Hypomania
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4 days long and not as severe as mania. does not cause any type of harm or impairment and does not require hospitalization
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Cyclothymia
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several cycles or fluctuations of depression and hypomania for atleast 2 years
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Melancholia
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severe type of depression wakes early, loss of appetite and pleasure. responds well to biological treatment
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Remission
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Period of recovery
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Relapse
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Return of symptoms after a person has recovered from previous episode
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Incidence and Prevalence
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Most frequent among young and middle aged adults people from after WW11 is more likely to develop mood disoreder
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Gender difference in bipolarity
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Is not present
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Gender difference in depression
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Women are 2/3 times more likely to develop depression
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Cultural differences
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Some cultures have different ways of showing symptoms of a disorder. Vocal and social difference makes it hard to investigate
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Manic episode can be induced by
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positive event and achievement, aversive patterns of emotional expression & communication within the family (hostility & criticism)
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Hopelessness theory
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causal attributions of bad events to internal, stable and global causes and perception of lack of control
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Interpersonal Theory
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Depressed people behavior can affect their social surrounding and can cause greater effect
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Rapid cYCLING
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Is characterized by at least 4 cycles of mania, hypomania and depression in a year.
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Maladaptive schemas
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The way the depressives perceive the world
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Neuroendocrine systems affect on mental health
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If the HPA is dysfunctional, it may affect the maintenence and development of depression
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Learned Helplessness
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by Martin Seligmen animals/people feel helpless in stressful situations
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Albert Bandra
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Learning through imitation (modelling)
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Medulla
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Regulates the heart rate, blood pressure. The vital involuntary actions
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Pons
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Sleep and arousal
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Reticular Formation
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Sleep arousal attention
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Cerebellum
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Motor coordination
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Cerebrum
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voluntary activity
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Thalamus
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sensory relay system
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Hypothalamus
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Regulates glands, NS
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Limbic system
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Emotion and learning Includes thalamus and hypothalamus
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Id
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The pleasure seeker Sex, Hunger, Thirst
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Ego
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More conscious about unconscious motivation and the real world
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Superego
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societal standards of behavior
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Aversion Therapy
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Using unpleasant stimulus with the bad habit to stop the bad habit High relapse rate
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Contingency Method
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Rewards associated with the behavior
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Experimental Method
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Used to determine causality Manipulate independent variable and measure effects of dependent variable
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Social Skills Training
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Teach new ways of behaving that are desirable and likely to be rewarded
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Assertiveness Training
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Teaches people to be direct about their feelings and wishes
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Social Problem Solving
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Step by step approach to dealing with social problems
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Attribution Retraining
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Encourages clients to be more scientific & less intuitive in their attributions about causes (Like CBT)
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Beck’s Cognitive Therapy
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Depression is caused by error in thinking Challenging cognitive errors by having clients analyze their thoughts more carefully (CBT)
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Internal Validity
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whether the experiment accurately links the changes in independent variable to the independent variable.
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External Validity
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Whether the experiment could be generalized to the whole population.
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Rational Emotional Therapy
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Changes the cognitive distortions during therapy instead of during client’s free time
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Spontaneous remission
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Recovery without any type of support
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Dialectic Behavior Therapy
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Usually for people with Borderline Personality Disorder Focuses on meditation, awareness of thoughts, Mindfullness
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Interrater Reliability
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The agreement between clinicians who were provided with the same information
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Split-Half Test
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Measures a test internal consistency
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Concurrent Validity
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Concerns with the correlation of current disorder and symptoms of other disorder
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Etiological Validity
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Concerned with the cause of the onset of the disorder
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Construct Validity
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How well a tool or measure is measuring the construct that it was meant to measure
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Predictive Validity
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Concerned with the stability of the disorder over time
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Reliable Change Index
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A statistic that we can use to work out whether a change in a person’s score (before & after some intervention) is statistically significant or not (based on how reliable the measure is)

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