Abnormal Psy

The process of collecting and interpreting relevant information about a client or research participant.

classification system
A list of disorders, along with descriptions of symptoms and guidelines for making appropriate diagnoses.

A determination that a person’s problems reflect a particular disorder.

The current edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders.

empirically supported treatment
A movement in the clinical field that seeks to identify which therapies have received clear research support for each disorder, to develop corresponding treatment guidelines, and to spread such information to clinicians. Also known as evidence-based treatment.

idiographic understanding
An understanding of the behavior of a particular individual.

intelligence quotient (IQ)
An overall score derived from intelligence tests.

intelligence test
A test designed to measure a person’s intellectual ability.

mental status exam
A set of interview questions and observations designed to reveal the degree and nature of a client’s abnormal functioning.

neuroimaging techniques
Neurological tests that provide images of brain structure or activity, such as CT scans, PET scans, and MRIs. Also called brain scans.

neurological test
A test that directly measures brain structure or activity.

neuropsychological test
A test that detects brain impairment by measuring a person’s cognitive, perceptual, and motor performances.

personality inventory
A test designed to measure broad personality characteristics, consisting of statements about behaviors, beliefs, and feelings that people evaluate as either characteristic or uncharacteristic of them.

projective test
A test consisting of ambiguous material that people interpret or respond to.

A psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medications.

psychophysiological test
A test that measures physical responses (such as heart rate and muscle tension) as possible indicators of psychological problems.

rapprochement movement
An effort to identify a set of common strategies that run through the work of all effective therapists.

A measure of the consistency of test or research results.

response inventories
Tests designed to measure a person’s responses in one specific area of functioning, such as affect, social skills, or cognitive processes.

The process in which a test is administered to a large group of people whose performance then serves as a standard or norm against which any individual’s score can be measured.

A cluster of symptoms that usually occur together.

A device for gathering information about a few aspects of a person’s psychological functioning from which broader information about the person can be inferred.

The accuracy of a test’s or study’s results; that is, the extent to which the test or study actually measures or shows what it claims.

A _________ assessment would be used to assess unconscious drives and conflicts that may be at the root of abnormal functioning.

A diagnostic tool that helps clinicians predict future characteristics or behavior has _______ validity.

A mental status exam is a component of a:
structured interview.

A shortcoming of intelligence tests, is that their outcomes can be affected by:
low motivation, high anxiety, and cultural biases.

An assessment that asks people to respond to pictures by telling a dramatic story is the:
Thematic Apperception Test.

If Frank were diagnosed with an anxiety disorder, with the DSM-V, his therapist would also give him a _________ to give further information.
severity rating

Which of the following is true about the term “nervous breakdown?”
It is not a recognized clinical term, but is used by laypersons.

Rating how severe a client’s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various dimensions of personality is called:
dimensional information.

The ______ movement has tried to identify a set of common strategies that are present in the work of all effective therapists, regardless of the clinician’s particular orientation.

The _______ produces a computerized motion picture of chemical activity throughout the brain.
P E T scan

The polygraph is a form of _________ test.

Three important criteria for assessments are:
standardization, reliability, and validity.

The ________ is a brain-imaging technique that uses magnetic property of certain atoms in the brain to create a detailed picture of the brain’s structure.

A clinician who is observing parent-child interactions in the home is conducting a(n) ________ observation.

The specific details and background of an individual client’s problem is called ____________ data.

The collecting of relevant information in an effort to reach a conclusion is referred to as a(n) ______

An assessment tool shows high _____________ reliability if different judges independently agree on how to score and interpret it.

Which of the following describes multicultural assessment issues that may arise with ethnic-minority clients?
They may reject of distrust members of the dominant culture. They may hold beliefs that seem strange to the dominant culture. And they may manifest symptoms in culture-bound ways.

In assessing personality, these are a scale on the MMPI?
Hysteria, Depression and Hypochondriasis

In 1883, Emil Kraepelin developed the first modern classification system for abnormal behavior, and his categories formed the foundation for psychological disorders found in which modern classification system?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM)

The DSM-5 contains ________ and ________ types of information that are a part of complete diagnosis.
categorical and dimensional

This widely used neuropsychological test consists of nine cards, each displaying a simple design that subjects are asked to first copy on a piece of paper and then redraw from memory.
Bender Visual-Motor Gestalt Test

Out of every 100 true statements, how many are incorrectly identified as false on a polygraph test?

A cluster of symptoms is known as a:

How many clinical scales are found on the MMPI (MMPI-2)?

According to a meta-analysis of treatment studies, the average person who received treatment was better off than ______ percent of the untreated control subjects.

An assessment tool has high ______________ if it yields the same results every time it is given to the same people
test-retest reliability

Which people are most likely to have been in therapy at some point in their lives?
Highly educated, middle-aged women from Western states.

The validity of clinical observations may be limited by a client’s ________, which means that the client’s behavior may be affected by the very presence of an observer.

__________ and __________ are two types of abnormal behavior promoted by “dark sites” on the Internet.
Anorexia; suicide

________is a neuroimaging test which produces a motion picture of chemical activity throughout the brain.
pet scan

Intelligence tests can play a key role in the diagnosis of:
mental retardation.

____________ is the single most effective therapy for schizophrenia.
Drug therapy

Which component of the DSM-5 requires a clinician to rate how severe a client’s symptoms are and how dysfunctional the client is across various areas of life?
the dimensional information component

About how many people in the United States will qualify for a DSM diagnosis at some point in their lives?
almost half

A psychiatrist who primarily prescribes medication is called a:

About how many different forms of therapy are practiced in the clinical field?

A _____________ test is one that has been set up with common steps to be followed whenever it is administered.

The ____________ requires a subject to look at one inkblot card at a time and tell what they see in the image.
Rorschach Test

MMPI stands for
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory

The ten scales of the MMPI (MMPI-2) are:
Scale 1: Hypochondriasis
Scale 2: Depression
Scale 3: Hysteria
Scale 4: Psychopathic Deviate
Scale 5: Masculinity-Femininity
Scale 6: Paranoia
Scale 7: Psychasthenia
Scale 8: Schizophrenia
Scale 9: Hypomania
Scale 0: Social Introversion

An anxiety disorder in which a person is afraid to be in public places or situations from which escape might be difficult (or embarrassing) or help unavailable if panic-like symptoms were to occur.

The central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a vague sense of threat or danger.

anxiety sensitivity
A tendency to focus on one’s bodily sensations, assess them illogically, and interpret them as harmful.

basic irrational assumptions
The inaccurate and inappropriate beliefs held by people with various psychological problems, according to Albert Ellis.

The most common group of antianxiety drugs, which includes Valium and Xanax.

A technique in which a client is given information about physiological reactions as they occur and learns to control the reactions voluntarily.

biological challenge test
A procedure used to produce panic in participants or clients by having them exercise vigorously or perform some other potentially panic inducing task in the presence of a researcher or therapist.

body dysmorphic disorder
A disorder in which individuals become preoccupied with the belief that they have certain defects or flaws in their physical appearance. The perceived defects or flaws are imagined or greatly exaggerated.

caudate nuclei
Structures in the brain, within the region known as the basal ganglia, that help convert sensory information into thoughts and actions.

classical conditioning
A process of learning in which two events that repeatedly occur close together in time become tied together in a person’s mind and so produce the same response.

client-centered therapy
The humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which clinicians try to help clients by being accepting, empathizing accurately, and conveying genuineness.

A repetitive and rigid behavior or mental act that a person feels driven to perform in order to prevent or reduce anxiety.

electromyograph (EMG)
A device that provides feedback about the level of muscular tension in the body.

exposure and response prevention
A behavioral treatment for obsessive-compulsive disorder that exposes a client to anxiety-arousing thoughts or situations and then prevents the client from performing his or her compulsive acts. Also called exposure and ritual prevention.

exposure treatments
Behavioral treatments in which persons are exposed to the objects or situations they dread.

family pedigree study
A research design in which investigators determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder.

The central nervous system’s physiological and emotional response to a serious threat to one’s well-being.

A treatment for phobias in which clients are exposed repeatedly and intensively to a feared object and made to see that it is actually harmless.

The neurotransmitter gamma–aminobutyric acid, whose low activity has been linked to generalized anxiety disorder.

generalized anxiety disorder
A disorder marked by persistent and excessive feelings of anxiety and worry about numerous events and activities.

locus ceruleus
A small area of the brain that seems to be active in the regulation of emotions. Many of its neurons use norepinephrine.

A process of learning in which a person observes and then imitates others. Also, a therapy approach based on the same principle.

A person’s attempt to eliminate unwanted thoughts by thinking or behaving in ways that put matters right internally, making up for the unacceptable thoughts.

A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to panic disorder and depression.

A persistent thought, urge, or image that is experienced repeatedly, feels intrusive, and causes anxiety.

obsessive-compulsive disorder
A disorder in which a person has recurrent and unwanted thoughts, a drive to perform repetitive and rigid actions, or both.

obsessive-compulsive-related disorders
A group of disorders in which obsessive-like concerns drive people to repeatedly and excessively perform specific patterns of behavior that greatly disrupt their lives.

orbitofrontal cortex
A region of the brain in which impulses involving -excretion, sexuality, violence, and other primitive activities normally arise.

panic attacks
Periodic, short bouts of panic that occur suddenly, reach a peak within minutes, and gradually pass.

panic disorder
An anxiety disorder marked by recurrent and unpredictable panic attacks.

A persistent and unreasonable fear of a particular object, activity, or situation.

A predisposition to develop certain fears.

rational-emotive therapy
A cognitive therapy developed by Albert Ellis that helps clients identify and change the irrational assumptions and thinking that help cause their psychological disorder.

relaxation training
A treatment procedure that teaches clients to relax at will so they can calm themselves in stressful situations.

sedative-hypnotic drugs
Drugs that calm people at lower doses and help them to fall asleep at higher doses.

A neurotransmitter whose abnormal activity is linked to depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder, and eating disorders.

social anxiety disorder
A severe and persistent fear of social or performance situations in which embarrassment may occur.

social skills training
A therapy approach that helps people learn or improve social skills and assertiveness through role playing and rehearsing of desirable behaviors.

specific phobia
A severe and persistent fear of a specific object or situation (other than agoraphobia and social phobia).

stimulus generalization
A behavioral treatment that uses relaxation training and a fear hierarchy to help clients with phobias react calmly to the objects or situations they dread.

_______________ are a family of antianxiety drugs that includes diazepam (Valium) and alprazolam (Xanax).

People with __________feel overrun by recurrent thoughts that cause anxiety or by the need to perform certain repetitive actions to reduce anxiety.
obsessive-compulsive disorder

The idea that human beings are “prepared” to acquire some phobias and not others is a ____________ perspective.

According to humanistic theorists, people develop generalized anxiety disorder when:
they repeatedly deny their true thoughts, emotions, and behaviors.

According to Sigmund Freud, children experience ______________ when they are repeatedly prevented from expressing their id impulses.
neurotic anxiety

According to the biological perspective, malfunctioning of which neurotransmitter system contributes to generalized anxiety disorder?

Fear of venturing into public places is known as:

What percent of Americans suffer from an anxiety disorder each year?

What perspective maintains that generalized anxiety disorder develops as a result of exposure to threatening environments?

Which of the following is not a type of anxiety disorder?
bipolar disorder

Which of these is not a major behavioral approach to treating specific phobias?
stimulus generalization

The distress experienced by people with ______________ is sometimes described as free-floating anxiety.
bipolar disorder

The most widely applied method of biofeedback for the treatment of anxiety disorders is the:

Which treatment is most consistently effective in treating agoraphobia?
No single approach is consistently effective in treating it, but some can bring relief.

According to psychodynamic theorists, what is involved in obsessive-compulsive disorder?
The id impulses usually take the form of obsessive thoughts, and the ego defenses appear as counter thoughts or compulsive actions.

Which of the following anxiety disorders appears to have the same prevalence in women and in men?
obsessive-compulsive disorder

In __________, the therapist confronts the feared object or situation while the person suffering from the phobia observes.

In __________, researchers produce panic in subjects or clients by administering drugs or by instructing them to breathe, exercise, or simply think in certain ways.
biological challenge tests

A treatment package called a stress management program that is used to treat generalized anxiety disorder would not include:
antianxiety medication.

In ___________’s technique of rational-emotive therapy, practitioners point out the irrational assumptions held by clients, and suggest more appropriate assumptions.
Albert Ellis

The cognitive perspective of panic disorder suggests that its sufferers:
may be overly sensitive to bodily sensation and misinterpret them.

What disorder may also develop along with panic disorder?

Which type of drugs has been most helpful in treating obsessive-compulsive disorder?
antidepressants that affect the serotonin system

What type of psychotherapist would tell a patient being treated for a cleaning compulsion to resist the urge to mop his bathroom floor for a week?

What type of psychotherapist would tell a patient being treated for fearful obsessive thoughts to think those thoughts as frequently as possible?

Which neurotransmitter system may be irregular in people suffering from panic disorder?

Which psychological perspective believes that people develop their compulsions as a result of random coincidence?

Women are _____ as likely as men to experience panic disorder.
at least twice

Abnormal functioning in which areas of the brain has been linked to obsessive-compulsive disorder?
orbitofrontal cortex and the caudate nuclei

The most common theme of obsessive thoughts is:
dirt or contamination.

In any given year, it is estimated that___% of people suffer from anxiety disorders.

This type of therapy tries to help clients suffering from anxiety by providing empathy and genuine positive regard.
client-centered therapy

The ____________ perspective suggests that one way of acquiring a fear reaction that may turn into a phobia is through modeling, that is, through observation and imitation.

To qualify for a DSM-5 diagnosis of generalized anxiety disorder, the excessive or ongoing anxiety or worry must last for at least:
3 months

To qualify for a DSM-5 diagnosis of obsessive-compulsive disorder, a person must have suffered recurrent obsessions and compulsions that:
impair daily functions, are time consuming and cause great distress.

In which kind of study would a researcher determine how many and which relatives of a person with a disorder have the same disorder?
family pedigree study

A fear hierarchy is:
a list of feared objects or situations.

A common compulsion in obsessive compulsive disorder includes:

What suggestion is shared by both the metacognitive theory and the avoidance theory of generalized anxiety disorder?
That worrying serves some sort of “positive” function for the sufferer.

Social anxiety disorder can be broken down into which of the following qualifiers?
narrow or broad