abnormal exam chapter 18

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the most feared psychological problem among the elderly is
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Alzheimer’s disease
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the percentage of the US population aged 65 and older today is
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13%
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why is REM sleep referred to as paradoxical sleep
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because the brain is active, unlike stage 4
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children are more likely than the elderly to experience
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sleep terrors
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regarding treatment of depression in the elderly, studies show that
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they respond to cognitive therapy, interpersonal therapy, and antidepressants
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what is the relationship between age and anxiety in the elderly
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as age increases, rate of anxiety disorders increase
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to date, research shows that anxiety among the elderly is related to
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health
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an elderly individual is suffering from agoraphobia. the form of therapy that person is least likely to receive is
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psychodynamic
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the class of drugs most often used to treat anxiety disorders in the elderly is
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antidepressants
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as people age, the incidence of alcohol abuse and other forms of substance abuse
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increases
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studies of the “oldest old” show that compared to those in their 80s and early 90s, the oldest old ar e
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healthier, clearer minded and agile
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those who begin unhealthy drinking patterns later in life typically begin as a response to
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declining health or financial status
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a particular problem often found more prominently in the elderly that is related to substance abuse is
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they don’t believe they have a problem
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among the elderly, psychotic cognitive symptoms are usually due to
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delirium
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the case of John Nash, Nobel prize winner and schizophrenic, illustrates _______, which is often found in the elderly who have been schizophrenic
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late life improvement
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an elderly person who develops false beliefs that are not bizarre is most likely suffering from
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delusional disorder
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an elderly person who believes falsely that others are conspiring against her, cheating, or spying on her and behaves in angry, irritable and depressed ways is exhibiting
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delusional disorder
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a 65-year-old in otherwise very good health typically will experience occasional
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memory dificulties
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a clouding of consciousness that develops over a short period of time and can often be reversed if its underlying cause can be found is called
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delirium
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an 80-year-old individual has been functioning normally, but now has an infection. however, over the course of a few days, the person shows increasing confusion, and consistently misinterprets what others are trying to communicate. the most probable diagnosis for this condition would be
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Alzheimer’s disease
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the criteria for the diagnosis of dementia include
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significant memory loss as well as cognitive losses and abstract thinking language
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Rosa has difficult remembering even where she is going. Maintaining friendships is difficult, and she loses her temper because she cannot remember things. her health has been deteriorating and she is clumsier than she was three years ago. she appears to be suffering from
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dementia
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Alzheimer’s is a brain _____ while stroke is a brain ______
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disease…injury
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Alzheimer’s is named for the first person to _____ the disease
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identify
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a 65-year-old is about what percent likely to be suffering some form of dementia
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less than 5%
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the most frequent cause of irreversible dementia in the elderly is
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Alzheimer’s disease
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the typical patter of Alzheimer’s for the patient is
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denial, anxiety, withdrawal, dependency
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your elderly grandfather is deteriorating. at first he seemed only mildly forgetful, but lately he has had trouble recalling the names of close relatives and cannot remember where he is. he used to be very loving and patient, but now he is irascible and very unpleasant at odd moments. this condition is getting worse. he is probably experiencing
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Alzheimer’s disease
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Alzheimer’s disease is diagnosed on the basis of
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neurofibrillary tangles and senile plaques
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what are neurofibrillary tangles
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twisted protein fibers in brain
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older individuals with Alzheimer’s disease differ from older individuals without Alzheimer’s disease in that they
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have an extra number of neurofibrillary tangles
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sphere-shaped deposits of a certain molecule in space between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called
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senile plaques
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the molecules that are found in sphere-shaped deposits in spaces between neurons in the hippocampus in individuals with Alzheimer’s disease are called
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senile plaques
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a person who has Alzheimer’s although there is no family history of the disease is said to be experiencing
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senile plaques
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the best evidence we have to date suggests that Alzheimer’s is transmitted genetically in families that
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transmit mutations
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research on the cause of Alzheimer’s disease has led to the conclusion that
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they don’t know
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a person who can grasp material immediately as it is presented, but who cannot remember it long-term, has difficult with
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long-term memory
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a person who has difficulty remembering how to use a key is having trouble with
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procedural memory
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a person who has an excess of plaques due to Alzheimer’s would be likely to have
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cell breakdown and death
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a person with the sporadic version of Alzheimer’s would be likely to have
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family history and brain disease
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someone with difficulty transforming short-term memory into long-term memory is most likely to have problems in the
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diencephalon
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you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with short-term memory
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prefrontal lobe
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you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with long-term memory
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temporal lobe
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you would suspect a problem in the _____ for someone experiencing difficulty with transforming information from short-term memory to long-term memory
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diencephalon
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when new information is acquired and stored in memory, _______ are produced
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protein
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a client suffers from severe problems in remembering recent information, and has increasing difficulty using ordinary language and other cognitive skills. the resulting diagnosis probably will be
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declarative memory problems
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an individual with retrograde amnesia
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can’t remember things that happened in the long term
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people with amnestic disorders
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have often had an injury of some sort
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an individual who demonstrates a severe anterograde amnesia may still demonstrate evidence of
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retrograde amnesia
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Tomas has a normal IQ, but demonstrates complete impairment of new learning. He also confabulates when asked to provide information about recent events. Tomas most likely is suffering from
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anterograde amnesia
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what would the removal of both temporal lobes most likely cause
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severe anterograde amnesia
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about what fraction of severe head injuries result in some permanent memory and learning problems
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50%
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elevated levels of _____ in the brains of some Alzheimer’s patients has led to the search for a heavy metal cause of the disease
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zinc
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recent research suggests that excessive levels of zinc in the brain
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triggers a dumping of beta-amyloid protein
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when an autoimmune response occurs, the body attacks
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itself
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the fact that Alzheimer’s disease resembles Creutzfeldt-Jacob disease suggests that Alzheimer’s may be caused by
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a slow acting virus
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a 74-year-old man has experienced a very sudden decrement in attention, language production, and memory. CT scans show localized damage to specific areas of the brain. he has a history of cardiovascular disease. his diagnosis would most likely be
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vascular dementia
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Quincy suddenly developed a short-term memory problem and only two months later had problems speaking. Six months after that he lost speech and hearing, and the left side of his face became paralyzed. each change in functioning was abrupt. he probably is suffering from
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multiple infractions
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a person quite suddenly begins to show specific cognitive impairment; the person has difficulty speaking, yet other cognitive functions appear normal. most likely that person is experiencing
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vascular dementia
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which of the following diseases involves degeneration of the frontal and temporal lobes
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picks disease
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lucille experienced severe mood, personality, and movement changes. she most likely has
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Huntington’s disease
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an individual suffering from a neurological disorder shows no evidence of infection or poisoning, but experiences tremors, rigidity, and unsteadiness. the most probable diagnosis is
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Parkinson’s disease
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dementia is also associated with
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AIDS
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someone who has AIDS is also at risk for developing
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dementia
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if you had a PET scan at a relatively young age, to predict your likelihood of developing Alzheimer’s, you would be most disturbed to find
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reduced hypocampus activity
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if you have unusually high level of AB42 beta-amyloid protein in your blood, you are more likely
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to develop Alzheimer’s disease or dementia
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which treatment has been most promising and most commonly used with dementias
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drugs
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the theoretical perspective currently receiving the most focus for the treatment of dementias is the _____ perspective
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biological
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the drug tacrine acts through
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preventing the breakdown of acetylcholine
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recently the FDA banned those who had spent more than six months total time in Great Britain from the earl 1980s to the mid 1990s from donating blood in the US, because of the still-unconfirmed possibility that a form of “mad cow disease” might be in their blood from eating tainted meat. if humans could contract mad cow disease, they would have symptoms similar to those of
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?
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Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease is most similar to
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dementia
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if all a woman wanted was to reduce her risk of developing Alzheimer’s she should
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take estrogen for years after menopause
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in order to control occasional pain and inflammation, a person uses an over-the-counter drug containing ibuprofen. interestingly, recent research shows that person also may be reducing the risk of contracting which disease
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Alzheimer’s disease
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one of the most frequent reasons for the institutionalization of Alzheimer’s patients is
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the caregivers can’t keep them home
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the term “double jeopardy” describes people who may develop psychological problems because they are
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part of a minority group and are old
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triple jeopardy, as an issue affecting the mental health of the elderly, refers to
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a woman who is elderly and part of a minority
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sources of discrimination in the mental health care of the elderly include
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language
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a partially supervised apartment, a senior housing complex for mildly impaired elderly people, and a nursing home with round-the-clock care are all examples of
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assisted living
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the percentage of the elderly population living in nursing homes at any given time is about
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5%
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if you do things during your life that promote physical and psychological well-being, you are engaging in a _____ approach to aging
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health maintenance
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Oliver Sachs finds that music can help elderly people
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move
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those of us who do not develop Alzheimer’s will nevertheless benefit from Alzheimer’s research because
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it will still keep the mind sharp
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it is estimated that as many as _____ percent of the elderly could benefit from mental health services, but only _____ percent receives them
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50…20
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the misuse of prescription drugs by the elderly is a form of ____ disorder
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substance abuse
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if an elderly person was found to have dementia, your best guess about what was causing it would be
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Alzheimer’s/vascular disease
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if someone asked you about the effectiveness of treatment for Alzheimer’s you would have to say
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even best treatments have limited success

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