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Abnormal Behavior

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What is Abnormal Behavior
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feelings an thoughts that are not normal from what people display
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STATISTICAL INFREQUENCY (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR-
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behavior can be measured along a distribution conditions we see in daily life that are not thought to be abnormal.
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VIOLATION OF NORMS (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)-
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behavior goes against what the culture, dictates to be normal, what one culture might accept in the behavior of its members may not be accepted in another (we might say that the marriage of an elderly woman to an 18 year old male was abnormal)
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PERSONAL DISTRESS (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)
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– personal suffering leading to reported feelings of torment, pain, sparrow, agony, grief, misery, concern, or worry (everyone gets the blues sometimes but Tony Soprano sees a psychiatrist because his blues make him feel extremely sad and worthless)
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UNEXPECTEDNESS (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)-
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behavior that is unconventional response to a commonly experienced situation, something that unexpected that is not typically done.
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Psychopathology
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the development of abnormal behavior is any pattern of feelings , behaviors, or thoughts that are causing problems and leading to personal distress or the the inability to achieve important goals.
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Recognize the difficulties to defining abnormal behavior because it overlaps with “normal” behavior
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1st Clinical significance-behavior involves a degree of impairment must have diagnostic validity. 2nd Behavior reflects a dysfunction in psychological, biological or developmental process. 3rd Behavior is usually associated with significant distress or disability in life. 4th Individuals behavior cannot be socially deviant 5th Conflicts between the individual and society are not counted for psychological disorders unless they reflect a disfunction with individual
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Discuss how one must go beyond the “other people” syndrome and how psychological difficulties are part of everybody’s lives.
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People believe that bad things happen only to other people. Other people have car accidents,succumb to cancer, or become severely depressed. Psychological difficulties are part of the human experience, touching the life directly or indirectly of every person
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3. Discuss how socially it affects the individual who is diagnosed with a psychological disorder and for those around him.
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People with psychological disorders range from discomfort, prejudice, language, humor, and stereotypes all portray psychological disorders. In a negative light and people often fear that people suffering from these disorders are violent and dangerous
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4. Contrast the view of abnormal behavior as deviation from the average with the view of abnormal behavior as deviation from the optimal.
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BIOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)
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Tyroid, abnormality can cause person mad to change, genetic & environmental influences on physical functioning psychological changes affect behavior as brain damage or exposure to harmful environmental stimuli
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PSYCHOLOGICAL PERSPECTIVE (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)
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Causes of abnormal behavior disturbance, in thoughts and feelings past learning experiences, maldaptive through patterns & difficulty coping with stress
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SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE (ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR)
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Various circles influence on the individual ranging from close friend and family to the institutions and policy.
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6. BIO-PSYCHOSOCIAL PERSPECTIVE ????
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The interaction of biological psychological and sociocultural factors play role in the development of n individual symptoms this means individuals must be changing over time
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7. Recognize the influence of beliefs about possession on prehistoric approaches to psychological disorders.
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Archeological evidence dating back to 8000 B.C suggests that the spiritual explanation was prevalent in prehistoric times. Skulls of the living had holes cut out of them
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8. SPIRITUAL APPROACH which regarded abnormal behavior as the product of possession by evil or demonic spirits.
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the belief that people showing signs of behavioral disturbance were possessed by evil spirits Skulls of the living had holes cut out of them a process called THREPHING this was an effort to release evil spirits from persons head Society considered people with psychological difficulties diners witches or souls of the evil. Another ancient practices was to drive away evil spirits through exorcism
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9. Describe how the HUMANITARIAN APPROACH view psychological disorders as the result of cruelty, stress, or poor living conditions.
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Its reactions against the spiritual approach and its punishment of people with psychological disorders, poorhouses and monasteries became shelters although they could not offer treatment they offered protective measures. These got overcrowded, rather than protection themselves this is were abuses occurred and this is were treatment involved bleeding, forced vomiting and purging its Founder Benjamin Rush
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10. Describe how SCIENTHIFIC APPROACH looks for causes that we can objectively measure, such as biological alterations, faulty learning processes, or emotional stressors.
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They used behavior modes that included explanations of Abnormality Scienthist experimenting with pharmacological treatment invented medications that for 1st time it could control systems. Hippocrates consider their were four important bodily fluids that influenced physical and mental health HIPPOCRATES: was also the first to suggest abnormal behavior was do to mental issues he speculated brain and behavior but did not test scientifically
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11. Describe the essential elements of the scientific research methods in abnormal psychology.
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the elements consist of OBJECTIVITY-the process of testing ideas about the nature of psychological phenomena without bias before accepting these ideas as adequate explanation Observation- Hypothesis Formation
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Independent variable
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a variable whose level is adjusted or controlled by experimenter, investigator controls it in most cases is experimental or treatment group
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Dependent variable
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variable that is observe; variable whose value is the outcome of the experiment
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Placebos
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Evaluating Therapy, in which participants receive a treatment similar to the experimental treatment but lack treatment of interest, If the study is evaluating effectiveness of a medication,**** has inert ingredients Example: depression can never be independent variable because investigator cannot manipulate it.
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Treatment Group
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the investigator controls in most cases is “experimental” or treatment group
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Control Group
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the group who received no treatment or a different treatment
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Double-Blind Technique
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Experimental procedures in which neither the person giving the treatment knows whether the participant is in experimental or control It shields both investigator and participant from knowing each others purpose or nature of patients treatment
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Correlational Method ?????
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evaluate several related variables as relative contributions of sleep disturbances, self esteem, gender and social class
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Positive correlational method
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Positive numbers represent positive correlation means that as scores increase scores on second variable increase
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Negative Correlational method
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One variable increase and the scores on the second variable decrease Example: depression and self esteem the more depressed people are lower scores on self-esteem
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SURVEY METHOD
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it is used to gather information from a sample of people considered representative of a particular population in which participants are asked to answer questions about the topic of concern
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INCIDENCE METHOD:
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the frequency of new cases within given time period
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PREVALANCE METHOD:
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the number of people who ever had a disorder or the total number of cases at a given time
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15. Describe how LABORATORY STUDIES are conducted.
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Participants are exposed to conditions based upon the nature of the experimental manipulation, collected data under controlled conditions Example: an experiment is conducted to compare reaction times to neutral and fear provoking stimuli
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16. Describe the CASE STUDY METHOD.
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Intensive investigation of a single person or small groups described in detail Example: therapist describes the cases of members of a family who share the same unusual disorder
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17. Indicate how the SINGLE SUBJECT- STUDY is conducted and how the multiple baseline technique is used in this type of research.
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the same person serves as the subject both the experimental and control conditions Example: Researchers report on the frequency of a clients behavior while the client is given attention (experimental treatment) and ignored (control condition) for aggressive outbursts in a psychiatric ward because of an elimination researchers use variation called multiple baseline method
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18. Discuss how the field of behavioral genetics and psychopathology attempt to determine the extent to which people inherit psychological disorders.
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Behavior genetics typically begin an investigation into a disorders genetic inheritance after observing the disorder shows a distinct pattern of family inheritance Example : Genetic researchers compare the DNA of people with and without symptoms of particular psychological disorders
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19. Discuss how complex it is to define ABNORMALITY without bringing in all the clinical perspectives.
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Developments are emerging in the field of abnormal psychology at an unbelievable pace due to efforts of researchers
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20. Describe the changes made in the DSM-5 as what is “clinically significant”.?????
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which includes assessment measures and diagnoses not considered well-established enough to be part of the main system
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21. Discuss the David Rosenhan’s groundbreaking study that shattered people’s assumptions about the difference between “sane” and “insane.” Indicate the ethics of correct diagnosis.
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CLIENT
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a person seeking psychological treatment
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PATIENT
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in the medical model a person who receives treatment
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STIGMA
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is a label that a causes us to regard certain people as different, defective, and set apart from mainstream members of society.
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2. Describe the types of clinicians who provide psychological treatment.
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Psychiatrists: people with degrees in medicine who receive specialized advanced training in diagnosing and treating people with psychological disorders. They go to three years in medical school psychoactive drugs Clinical Psychology: have an advanced degree in the field of psychology and are trained in diagnosis and therapy they have to get a PHD has included a heavy research component not only problems of living, mental disease, psycho patholog They have the idea they would try to help their patients without medicine how to cope with problems
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3. Outline the history of the development of DSM
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DSM is diagnostic manual that is based on the medical model they focus on accurately labeling groups of syndrome with the intention of providing targeted treatments. This is used to recognize between normal and abnormal. In which they label a collection of behaviors as a disease manual used DSM-1 was based on Psychanalytic model DSM-2 based on ICD DSM-3 and on is Medical analysis Homosexuality was taken out and Postraumatic stress Disorder was added
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DSM-IV-TR,
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the multiaxal system was used to allow professionals to characterize clients in a multidimensional way, summarizing relevant information about an individuals physical and psychological functioning The DSM-IV relied on comprehensive reviews, thorough analyses of research data, and field trials to test reliability and validity further.
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Including the medical model, a theoretical orientation, categorical approach, and multiaxial system.
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MEDICAL MODEL- THEORETICAL ORIENTATION MULTIAXIAL SYSTEM- a multidimensional classification and diagnostic system in the DSM-IV-TR summarizing relevant information about an individuals physical and psychological functioning
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Axis I Clinical Disorders
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Clinical Disorders= depression, anxiety, schizophrenia
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Axis II Personality Disorders and Mental ????Retardation
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Diagnosis of personality disorders, mental retardation
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Axis III General Medical Conditions ???
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was used to note the clients medical conditions
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Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems
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rated the clients psychosocial stresses, any stressors that will make illness worse, unemployment
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Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning
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rated the clients overall level of functioning
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Culture-bound syndromes.
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are behavior patterns that exist only within particular cultures. this abnormal behavior is shown in specific societies or cultural areas
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6. Outline the history of ICD and the latest used version. Give examples of countries following ICD-10 and the different languages it is available in.????????
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110 member nations can compare illness rates and have assurance that countries employ the same terminology for the sake of consistency, the ICD-10 is in six languages (Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian, Spanish)
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7. Ways in which the clinician rules out DIFFERENTIAL DIAGNOSIS
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The ruling out of alternative diagnosis, is crucial step in the diagnosis process, It is important for the clinician to eliminate the possibility that the client is experiencing a different disorder or perhaps an additional disorder
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8. Indicate how a Case Formulation is constructed.
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An analysis of the client’s development and the factors that might have influenced his or her current psychological status. This analysis transforms this diagnosis from a set of code numbers to a descriptive information about the clients personal history
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9. Indicate how a Cultural Formulation is constructed.
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includes the clinician’s assessment of the client’s degree of identification with the culture of origin, the cultures beliefs about psychological disorders, the ways in which the culture interprets particular events, and the cultural supports available to client.
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SHORT-TERM TREATMENT
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– aimed at alleviating the clients symptoms by addressing the problematic behavior, thinking, or emotions. The plan is establishing a working relationship between a clinician an a client
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LONG TERM TREATMENT
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-includes more deep alterations in client’s personality and relationships goals for any client are to cope with the symptoms of the disorder and to develop a strategy to manage them. Depending on the severity of the clients disorder, available support,life stress, these long terms may take years to accomplish
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Psychiatric hospitals
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a client receives medical interventions and intensive forms of psychotherapy, These settings are appropriate for clients who are at risk of harming themselves or others who are not capable of taking care of themselves
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Specialized inpatient treatment centers,
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clients may not need hospital care but do need supervision, provide supportive services and round the clock monitoring. They include recovery treatment centers for adults who want to overcome substance addiction
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Outpatient treatment
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private therapist,outpatient clinic or office community mental health centers provide psychological services on a sliding fee scale for individuals
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Halfway houses
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are designed with clients who have been discharged from psychiatric facilities, but who are not yet ready for independent living, this provides a living context
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Day treatment programs,
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they are designed for hospitalized clients as well for clients who do not need hospitalization but do need a structure program during the day
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Other treatment sites.
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Clinicians also recommend for their patients to receive treatment in their work, school
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12.Modalities of treatment,
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form in which the clinician offers psychotherapy is another important treatment plan. Clinicians recommend one or more modalities depending on the client symptoms
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Individual psychotherapy,
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Psychological treatment in which the therapist works on a one to one basis with the client
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Family therapy
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psychological treatment in which the therapist works with several or all members of the family members may identify one member as the patient. The therapist still views the whole family system as the target of the treatment
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Group therapy
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psychological treatment in which therapist discuss among several clients who talk together about their problems it provides the modality in which clients who face the same issues can openly share their difficulties with others,receive feedback, develop trust and improve their interpersonal skill
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Milieu therapy.
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a treatment approach used in inpatient psychiatric facility, which is based on the environment the main focus is treatment
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13. Discuss how a clinician determines the best approach to treatment.
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Clinicians are trained according to a particular set of assumptions about the origins of psychological disorders and the best methods of treating these disorders Clinician decision making that integrates the best available research evidence and clinical expertise in the context of cultural background, preferences, and characteristics of clients
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14. Explain the clinician’s role in the course of treatment.
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the quality of the relationship between the client and clinician is crucial to determine if therapy will succeed or not
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15. Explain the client’s role in the course of treatment.
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It is up to the client responsibility to describe and identify the nature of his or her disorder, to describe personal reactions as treatment progress and to indicate and follow through the changes,
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16. Explain the role of the clinician and the client’s role in the outcome of treatment.
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The quality of the relationship between the client and clinician is a crucial determinant of whether therapy will succeed or not A good clinician does administer treatment to a client, infuse a deep personal interest concern, and respect for a client into the therapeutic relationship.
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17. Discuss the changes in the DSM-5 Structure.
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The authors of the DSM-IV had to ensure that the diagnoses would meet the criteria of RELIABILITY, – a given diagnosis will be consistently applied to anyone showing a particular set of symptoms. Teams of researchers throughout the United States have continued to investigate the VALIDITY of the classification system, which a test, diagnosis or rating accurately that the diagnoses represent real and distinct clinical phenomenon. The lower the Base Rate Of A Disorder-the frequency with which it occurs in the general population. the more difficult it is to establish the reliability of the diagnosis because there are so few cases to compare.
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18. Discuss whether prescribing medications reduce the scientific status of psychologists.
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1. Describe the purpose of theories as the basis for understanding and treating abnormal behavior.
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To help clinician, researcher organize and interpret so we can help THEORIES also provide a framework for interpreting observations about behavior
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2.Genetics
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abnormalities can come with inheritance of combination in genes, a faulty copying when cells reproduce, or to mutations that a person acquires over the course of life. cell do possess the ability to repair many of these mutations. IF these repair mechanism fail, the mutation can pass along the altered copies
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Genes
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they contain the instructions for forming proteins this determines how the cells will performed in the case of neurons genes control the manufacturing of neurotransmitters behave in the synapse, they also determine how the brains structure develop throughout life
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Explain the various theories that explain basic concepts in chromosomes
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Genotype
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is the genetic makeup which contains the form of each gene that you inherit called an allele(variations of a gene)
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Phenotype
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observed an measurable characteristics that result from the combination of environmental and genetic influences
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Norepinephrine
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Depressive disorders, Anxiety disorders (panic disorder)
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SEROTONIN
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Depressive Disorders, Anxiety disorder (Obsessive compulsive disorder) schizophrenia, anorexia nervosa, substance use disorders, people who are depressed have low of serotonin
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GABA
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Anxiety Disorder(all the rest of anxiety disorder) Substance use disorder, functions to cal the nervous system not enough **** can increase anxiety (alcohol, volume increase)
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DOPAMINE-
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Neurocognitive disorder due to Parkinson’s disorder, Schizophrenia, Eating Disorders, Substance use disorders its a pleasure neurotransmitter if you take cocaine, anti psychotic supplement will decrease to much *** it makes a person psychotic
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3. ACETYLCHOLINE-
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Neurocognitive disorder do to Alzheimers disease (related to learning memory problems Alzheimers language problems personality
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OPIOIDS-
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Substance use disorders, heroin methadone, methane it stops producing because of negative impact
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Diathesis-stress model.
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proposed that people are born with a (genetic predisposition) or diathesis that places them at risk for developing a psychological disorder if exposed to certain extremely stressful life experiences as traumas, diseases, birth complications, or harsh family environm.
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4. Outline the forms of biologically based or treatments,???????
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cannot address the disorder cause in terms of fixing genetic problems, biological therapies involve medications, surgery, or other direct treatment forms on the brain
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Psychotherapeutic medication
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somatic treatments are intended to reduce the individuals symptoms by altering the levels of neurotransmitter that researchers believe are involved in the disorder (Antipsychotics, Antidepressants, Anticonvulsants, Antianxiety medications, and stimulants
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psychosurgery
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it is a treatment when a neurosurgeon operates on brain regions,in which is to reduce psychological disturbance
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electroconvulsive therapy
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electrodes across the head that produce on electric shock the produce brief beneficial seizures, treatment of major depressive disorder showed that in the short term was more effective than medications producing rapid improvement long term ECT caused memory impairment
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medication
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Biofeedback
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to have people manage anxiety it is monitored by a monitoring finger
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5. Outline how personality types are understood through the trait theory approach.
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proposes that abnormality occurs when the individual has maladaptive personality traits. According to this theory each of the basic five dispositions has six facets which leads to a total of 30 personality components This includes the personality traits of neuroticism, extraversion, openness to experience, agreeableness, and conscientiousness involves providing scores on ratings on each facet
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6. ID Freud’s theory,
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(instinctive inborn part of personality) is the structure of personality hidden in the unconscious that contains instincts oriented toward sexual and aggressive instincts. IT follows the PLEASURE PRINCIPLE a motivating force that seeks immediate and total gratification of sensual needs and desires it goes by wish fulfillment the id images whatever will satisfy the needs of the moment
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EGO-Freud’s theory,
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the center of consciousness awareness in personality, which gives the individual the cognitive powers of judgment, memory, perception and decision making in its correlation to REALITY PRINCIPLES the ego uses rationality to achieve its goals it leads to the individual to confront the constraints of the external world
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SUPEREGO: Freud’s theory,
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it controls ego pursuit and the ids desire in which is personalities seat of morality, it includes the conscience (sense of right and wrong) and the ego ideal, or aspirations the part of unconscious we don’t know how much we are brain wash
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Structure of personality psychodynamics
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defense mechanisms
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tactics that keep unacceptable thoughts, instincts and feelings out of conscious awareness and protects the ego against anxiety
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stages of psychosexual development
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At each stage the libido becomes fixated on a particular erogenous or sexually excitable zone of the body. Freud believed an individual may regress to behavior appropriate to to an earlier stage or may become stuck or fixated at that stage ORAL- PLEASURE Mouth lips ANAL RETENTIVE- is overly rigid, controlled, and perfectionist( toilet training) obsessive compulsive, anxiety) PHALLIC- Genital phase (attractive to mom) LATENCY- (5-12) Learning GENITAL- Adolescent to adulthood developing childs feeling toward opposite sex set the stage for later psychological adjustment OEDIPAL- for the boys a belief that a child feelings toward the opposite sex parent set the stage for later psychological adjustment ELECTRA- is for the girls
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Freud’s place in history.
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Theories of other psychodynamic theorists including Jung,
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archetype theory would explain that popular superheros are outward representations of universal aspects of human personality he believed the unconscious is formed around a set of images common to all human experience, which we called archetypes. Jung believed people respond to events in their daily lives on the basis of these archetypes because they are part of our genetic makeup he believed abnormality exist from unbalance within the mind especially when people fail to play proper attention to the unconscious needs
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Adler
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He talked about negative consequences in inferiority complex the ego was the most important aspect of personality he believed on the role of the healthy self concept in normal psychology functioning . Adler and Horney they saw social concerns and interpersonal relations in the development of personality
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Horney
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proposed that unhappiness comes from trying to live up to a false self, ego was the most important aspect of personality he believed on the role of the healthy self concept in normal psychology functioning .
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Erikson
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the first years of life are important gave greatest attention to the ego or what called ego identity he coined the term identity crisis a task he believed was central to development. He believed that the ego to a series of transformations throughout life in which a new strength or ability can mature He believed that each stage builds on the one that precedes it and in turn influences al following stages Example: middle aged women who is laid off from her job may question her occupational identity as she seeks to find a new position for herself in the workplace
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object relations theorists
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the relationships that people have with the others “objects: in their lives. Believe that individuals relationship with the caregiver becomes the model for all close adult relationships.
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Winnicott AND Mahler
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ego psychologist object relation theorist have a model of therapy that associate with their theories. They agree that early childhood relationships are at the root of abnormality
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8. Explain the essential features of Freudian psychoanalysis and differentiate this form of therapy from other psychodynamic treatments.
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developed by Freud was to bring repressed unconscious material into conscious awareness. He developed therapeutic method of free association client says whatever comes to mind Believed clients needed to work through their unconscious conflicts, bringing them gradually into conscious awareness.
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PSYCHODYNAMIC TREATMENT-
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focused on helping clients explore aspects of the self that are unconscious in the sense that the client does not recognize them Therapist focus in how clients reveal and influence these aspects of the self in relationship with the others
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Classical conditioning-
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accounts for learning emotional automatic responses, learning of a connection between an original neutral stimulus and a naturally evoking stimulus that produces and automatic reflexive reaction.EXAMPLE when dog salivates with bell
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Operant Conditioning-
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a learning process in which an individual acquires behaviors through reinforcement. The behavior consequences are its reinforcement the condition that makes the individual more likely to repeat the behavior in the future
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Unconditioned stimuli & Unconditioned Response
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unconditionally, naturally, and automatically triggers a response. unlearn response that occurs naturally in the reaction to the unconditioned stimulus Example jumping at a loud noise
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Positive Reinforcement
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behavior that results in a pleasant consequence is strengthened and more likely to occur in the future (Giving chocolate for what someone consist of correct behavior)
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Negative Reinforcement
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behavior that results in the termination of a negative consequence is strengthened and more likely to occur in the future, I want my dog to be on a leash which he doesn’t like when I take it off he stays there
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Positive Punishment
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behavior that results in an unpleasant consequences is weakened or made less likely
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Negative Punishment
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behavior that results in the removal of positive things is weakened
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Extinction
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no longer provide the consequences and eventually the learned behavior becomes weak and goes away
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Counterconditioning-
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the process of replacing and undesired response to a stimulus with an acceptable response YOU CAN HELP OVERCOME FEAR
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Systematic Desensitization-
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a variant of counterconditioning that involves presenting the client progressively to something they are afraid provoking anxiety
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PARTICIPANT MODELING-
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a form of therapy which therapist first shows the client a desired behavior and then guides the client through the behavioral change
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CONTINGENCY MANAGEMENT
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– IS A FORM OF Behavior therapy in which clinicians provide clients with positive reinforcement for performing desired behaviors and rewards the client learns to connect the outcome of the behavior with the behavior itself
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Token Economy
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a client who performs desired activities receives tokens the increase likelihood of good behavior
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Participant Modeling
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theraphy in which the theraphy shows client a desired behavior and then guides the client through the behavior change
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11. Describe the various theories that explain how cognition affects behavior.
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12. ACEPTANCE & COMMITMENT THERAPHY-.
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helps clients accept full range of their subjective experience, such as distressing thoughts and feelings as they commit themselves to task aimed at acheiving behavior change that well lead to an improved quality of life
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Cognitive Restructing-
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the clinician attempts to change the clients thoughts by questioning and changing the clients dysfunctional attitudes and irrational beliefs, clients learn to reframe negative ideas into positive ones
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COGNITIVE BEHAVIORAL THERAPHY-
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treatment method in which clinicians focused on changing both maldaptive thoughts and maldaptive behavior, the goal of CBT id to give clients greater control over their dysfunctional behaviors thoughts and emotions
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PERSON CENTERED THEORY
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it focused on each individual uniqueness, the importance of allowing each individual to achieve maximum fulfillment of potential and Their is a hierarchy of needs that we fulfill in life
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CLIENT-CENTERED-Rogers and Maslow’s self-actualization theory.
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to reflect his belief that people are innately good and that the potential for self improvement lies within the individual rather than in the therapist or therapeutic techniques
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“CONDITION OF WORTH-Rogers and Maslow’s self-actualization theory.
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Demands that parents place on children. they develop chronic anxiety about making mistakes that will subject to further disapproval
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SELF ACTUALIZATION-Rogers and Maslow’s self-actualization theory.
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the maximum realization of the individuals potential for psychological growth ex; self actualized people have accurate self perceptions and are able to find rich sources of enjoyment and stimulation in their everyday activities
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14. Describe treatments based on the humanistic perspective.
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they believe that people are motivated to strive for self-fulfillment and meaning in life. They believed psychological disorders arise when people are unable to experience living in the moment. People develop disorders not by biology or thoughts but modern society impose that restriction on their ability to express our inner selves
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UNCONDITIONAL POSITIVE REGARD-
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involves total acceptance of what the client says, does and feels. As clients feel better about themselves, they become better able to tolerate anxiety that occurs with acknowledging their own weaknesses because they no longer feel driven to see themselves as perfect
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MOTIVATIOANL INTERVIEWING-
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is another client-centered technique that uses empathic understanding to promote behavioral change in clients clinician collaborates with the client to strengthen the clients motivation to make changes by asking questions that elicit the individuals own argument for change
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15. SOCIOCULTURAL PERSPECTIVE
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emphasize the ways the individuals are influenced by people, social institutions, and social forces in the world around them
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1.FAMILY PERSPECTIVE-
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a perspective in which it is assumed that abnormality is caused by disturbances in the pattern of interactions and relationships within the family.
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2. SOCIAL DISCRIMINATION-
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a cause psychological problems is discrimination on the basis of gender, race, sexual orientation, religion, social class, and age
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3. SOCIECONOMIC DISCRIMINATION-
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is compound by membership in ethic or racial minorities. People have a few opportunities or when they encounter oppression because of unalterable human characteristics
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4. HISTORICAL EVENTS-
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such as violence of a political revolution, the turmoil of a natural disaster, or the poverty of nationwide depression, traumatized as the result of terrorist attacks, exposure to battle, persecution or imprisionment are at risk for developing serious anxiety disorders
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16. Evaluate the treatments based on the sociocultural perspective
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FAMILY THERAPY- clinician encourages all family group members to try new ways of relating to each other or thinking about their problems. instead in focusing in one person they focus on the ways in which dysfunctional relational patterns maintain a problem or symptom
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GROUP THERAPY-
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people who share similar experiences share their stories with each other aided by the therapist, this has a positive impact by allowing clients to find relief and hope in realization that their problems are not unique
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MILIEU THERAPY-
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in treatment such as impatient hospitals to promote positive functioning in clients by creating therapeutic community. Community members participate in group activities, ranging from occupational therapy to training classes. Is the pressure to conform to conventional social norms of behavior fosters more adaptive behavior on clients.
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MULTICULTURAL APPROACH-
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therapy that relies on awareness, knowledge and skills of the clients sociocultural context therapists need to be sensitive to the ways in which the clients cultural background interacts with his or her specific life experiences and family influences. A commitment to learning about the client’s cultural, ethic, and racial group and how these factors play a role in assessment, diagnosis, and treatment, and characterize knowledge.
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17. Explain how integrative models of psychotherapy put together the concepts and methods of the major perspectives in abnormal psychology.
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18. Discuss how DSM-5 chooses to remain atheoretical and what critics have to say about it.
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19. Discuss APA’s evidence-based practice guidelines for clinicians who provide psychological treatment.
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