A-Z Pre-AP (World History Midterm Review)

Flashcard maker : Jill Lopez
Achaemenid empire
first great Persian empire which began under Cyrus and reached its peak under Darius
ahimsa
Jain term for the principle of nonviolence to other living things or their souls
Ahura Mazda
main god of Zoroastrianism who represented truth and goodness and was perceived to be in an eternal struggle with the malign spirit Angra Mainyu
Analects
the teachings of Confucius compiled by his disciples
Antigonid Empire
the portion of Alexander’s realm that that included Greece and Macedon
Aryans
nomads from Europe and Asia who migrated to India and finally settled; Vedas from this time suggest beginning of caste system
Assyrians
descendants of the Akkadians who were traders and fierce warriors known for a powerful army and a well-structured state; used cavalry instead of chariots
Babylonian
an ancient empire of Mesopotamia in the Euphrates River valley; flourished under Hammurabi, who had a very strict code of law which told people how to live; fell to the Persians
Bantu
African peoples who originally lived in the area of present-day Nigeria; around 2000 B.C.E. they began a centuries-long migration that took them to most of sub-Saharan Africa; very influential, especially linguistically
Bodhisattvas
enlightened persons who have postponed Nirvana to help others attain enlightenment
Brahmins
Hindu caste of priests; led ceremonies
Buddhism
based on Four Noble Truths, the teaching of Siddhartha Gautama that life is permeated with suffering caused by desire, that suffering ceases when desire ceases, and that enlightenment obtained through right conduct and wisdom and meditation releases one from desire and suffering and rebirth
Carthage
city founded by the Phoenicians; became a major commercial center and naval power in the western Mediterranean until defeated by Rome in the Punic Wars
caste
Indian social class system in which distinctions and restrictions on marriage, occupation, handling of food, and other matters are transferred through generations or through class
Catal Huyuk
important Neolithic settlement in Anatolia; early urban culture based on sedentary agriculture
Christianity
religion emerging from Middle East in the first century C.E. holding Jesus to be the son of God who sacrificed himself on behalf of mankind
city-states
urban areas that controlled surrounding agricultural regions and that were often loosely connected in a broader political structure with others
Confucianism
the system of ethics, education, and statesmanship taught by Kong Fuzi and his disciples, stressing love for humanity, ancestor worship, reverence for parents, and harmony in thought and conduct
Cro-Magnon
Homo sapiens sapiens, who appeared forty thousand years ago during the Paleolithic age and were the first human beings of the modern type
Cuneiform
ancient wedge-shaped script of the Sumerians, probably the first written script in the world
Daoism
Chinese philosophy with origins in the Zhou dynasty associated with legendary philosopher Laozi; called for a policy of inaction
Dharma
Hindu concept of obedience to religious and moral laws and order
Etruscans
northern Italian society that initially dominated the Romans; helped convey Greek concepts to the expanding Romans
Four Noble Truths
the foundation of Buddhist thought: life is pain; pain is caused by desire; elimination of desire will bring an end to pain; living a life based on the Noble Eightfold Path will eliminate desire
Gupta
Indian dynasty that briefly reunited India after the collapse of the earlier Mauryan dynasty, under their rule India enjoyed a Golden Age
Code of Hammurabi
one of the first sophisticated collections of laws; regulated Babylonians’ everyday behavior
Han Dynasty
Chinese dynasty that ruled an expanding empire with a large bureaucracy based upon Legalist and Confucian values; taxed agriculture and trade and raised large armies to colonize Vietnam, Korea, and the Xiongnu territory
Harappan
early brilliant Indian society centered around Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro; most likely declined due to ecological degradation
Hellenistic period
associated with the spread of Greek influence as a result of Macedonian conquests; often seen as the combination of Greek culture with eastern political forms
Hinduism
main religion of India, a combination of Dravidian and Aryan concepts; goal to reach spiritual purity and union with the great world spirit; its important concepts include dharma, karma, and samsara
Hittites
group that settles in central Anatolia around 2000 B.C.E., establishes powerful kingdoms, conquers the Babylonian empire in 1595 B.C.E., and dissolves about 1200 B.C.E. Technological feats include iron metallurgy and light horse-drawn chariots
Homo erectus
\”upright-walking human,\” which existed from 1.5 million to two hundred thousand years ago; used cleavers and hand axes and learned how to control fire
Homo sapiens
\”consciously thinking human,\” which first appeared around two hundred fifty thousand years ago and used sophisticated tools
Hyksos
invaders who seized the Nile delta and helped bring an end to the Egyptian Middle Kingdom
Jainism
Indian religion associated with the teacher Vardhamana Mahavira in which every physical object possessed a soul; believed in complete nonviolence to all living beings
jati
Indian word for a Hindu subcaste
Jericho
earliest known Neolithic village based on sedentary agriculture
Jomon
japanese preagricultural society that lived in large villages and produced elaborate pottery
Karma
Hindu concept that the sum of good and bad in a person’s life will determine his or her status in the next life
Legalism
Chinese philosophy from the Zhou dynasty that called for harsh suppression of the common people
Lex talionis
\”law of retaliation,\” in which offenders suffered punishments similar to their crimes (Code of Hammurabi)
Macedon
frontier state north of the Greek peninsula, became centralized under Philip II; conquered Greek city-states
Mahayana
sect of Buddhism that offers salvation to all and allows popular worship
Mandate of Heaven
Chinese belief that the emperors ruled through the approval of heaven contingent on their ability to look after the welfare of the population
Mauryan
first centralized empire of India founded by Chandragupta and reached its peak under Ashoka
Mayan
brilliant Central American society known for math, astronomy, and a sophisticated written language
Mesopotamia
meaning \”between the rivers,\” the first civilization located between the Tigris and Eurphrates Rivers in present day Iraq
Monotheism
belief in only one god, a rare concept in the ancient world
Mycenaeans
developed on the Peloponnesus Peninsula; built a huge fleet of ships to capture trade routes and established colonies; adopted Minoan writing and building ideas and eventually conquered the Minoans in 1450 BC.
Neanderthals
early humans who were prevalent during the Paleolithic period
Neolithic
(New Stone Age) marked by the discovery and mastery of agriculture
Nirvana
Buddhist concept of a state of spiritual perfection and enlightenment in which distracting passions are eliminated
Noble Eightfold Path
final truth of the Buddhist Four Noble Truths that called for leading a life of balance and constant contemplation
Nubia
area south of Egypt; kingdom of Kush invaded and dominated Egypt from 750 to 664 B.C.E.
Olmecs
Mesoamerican civilization whose achievements include irrigation, a simple calendar and writing system, and small cities
oracle bones
(Chinese Shang dynasty) means of foretelling the future
Paleolithic
(Old Stone Age) a long period of human development before the development of agriculture
patriarchy
system of social organization in which males dominate the family and where public institutions, descent, and succession are traced through the male line
Pax Romana
Roman Peace, a term that relates to the period of political stability, cultural brilliance, and economic prosperity beginning with unification under Augustus and lasting through the first two centuries C.E.
Peloponnesian War
a war between camps led by Athens and Sparta; ended with the unconditional surrender of Athens
Perseopolis
new capital of the Persian Empire established under the reign of Darius
Persian War
war sparked by revolt of Greek cities on the Ionian coast against Persia; after failure to take Athens, army forced to retreat back to Anatolia
pharaohs
Egyptian kings considered to be gods on earth
Phoenicians
a maritime civilization of the Mediterranean that developed extensive trade and communication networks as well as an early alphabetical script
plebians
Roman common people
polis
Greek term for the city-state
prehistory
the period before the invention of writing
qanat
Persian underground canal
Qin
first true unified empire of China founded by Shihuangdi and was marked by the early construction of defensive walls
Samsara
Hindu term for the concept of transmigration: the soul passing into a new incarnation
Sanskrit
sacred language of the early Aryans
satraps
Persian administrators, usually members of the royal family, who governed a satrapy
Seleucids
controlled Persia after the death of Alexander the Great; retained Achaemenid systems of administration and taxation, as well as the imperial roads and postal service
Shang Dynasty
Chinese kingdom in which agricultural surpluses supported large armies and a large network of walled towns
Shudras
laborers, craftworkers and servants in the Indian caste system
Siddhartha Gautama
Indian kshatriya who achieved enlightenment and became known as the Buddha, the founder of Buddhism
Silk roads
ancient trade routes that extended from the Roman empire in the west to China in the east
stateless societies
term relating to societies such as those of sub-Saharan Africa after the Bantu migrations that featured decentralized rule through family and kinship groups instead of strongly centralized hierarchies
Sumerians
dominated Southern Mesopotamia through the end of the 3rd Millennium BCE; responsible for the creation of irrigation technology, cunieform, and religious conceptions.
Ten Commandments
moral and ethical standards for followers of Moses
Thereveda
truer to the early buddhism; more strict and harder to follow
Torah
compilation of teachings that guide Judaism
Upanishads
Indian reflections and dialogues that reflected basic Hindu concepts
Vaishyas
Hindu caste of cultivators, artisans, and merchants
Varna
Hindu word for the original social division of Vedic people into four main social groups
Vedas
\”wisdom,\” early collections of prayers and hymns that provide information about the Indo-European Aryans who migrated into India
Venus figurines
small Paleolithic statues of women with exaggerated sexual features
Vishnu
Hindu god, preserver of the world, who was often incarnated as Krishna
White Huns
invaders who weakened the empire of the Guptas, nomadic invaders from central Asia; disrupted Gupta administration and caused decline and eventual fall
Wuwei
Daoist concept of a disengagement from the affairs of the world
Xia
Chinese dynasty that is known mainly from legend
Xiao
Confucian concept of respect for one’s parents and ancestors
Yahweh
god of the monotheistic religion of Judaism that influenced later Christianity and Islam
Yellow River
important river in ancient China named for the rich loess soil carried by the river
Yellow Turban Uprising
revolt against the land distribution policies of the Han dynasty
Zarathustra
Persian prophet who founded Zoroastrianism
Zhou
Chinese dynasty that created the concept of the Mandate of Heaven to justify its rule
Ziggurats
Mesopotamian temples
Zoroastrianism
Persian religion based on the teaching of the sixth-century-BCE prophet Zarathustra; emphasis on the duality of good and evil and on the role of individuals in determining their own fate influenced later religions

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