6260 Final – Kathy Bitner – Flashcards

question
Parsons' tripartite model for vocational direction developed into the approach to career development interventions known as
answer
---Trait-and-factor
question
The goal of the trait-and-factor approach to career counseling is to
answer
-Identify the degree of fit between the person and the occupation.
question
The Career Pattern Study was
answer
One of the first longitudinal studies of career development.
question
Which of the following was the first to shift the focus of career development interventions to that of an ongoing process?
answer
Donald Super
question
The main organization for professional career counselors is the
answer
National Career Development Association.
question
According to Savickas, the competencies which will become the main areas of focus for career counselors are
answer
Critical thinking, self-affirmation, and commitment to community.
question
The idea that feelings in one area of life affect feelings in another area of living is known as which of the following:
answer
Spillover hypothesis
question
Those adhering to a self-fulfilling work ethic are seeking a career that allows them to be
answer
Involved in family, community, leisure, and/or other life roles.
question
A systematic process for occupational decision-making, labeled true reasoning, was developed by
answer
Parsons.
question
The work of James Cattell, Alfred Binet, and Walter Bingham contributed extensively to the emphasis of ________ in career counseling
answer
Testing
question
The 2 x 2 matrix used to classify career practitioners' actions includes behavior that is
answer
legal and ethical.
question
When a client's concerns include depressive feelings, low self-esteem, and other serious mental health issues, career counselors should
answer
assess whether they can adequately deal with the problem at hand or should refer the client to another professional.
question
Dealing with ethical issues and values, Herr and Niles (1988) stress awareness of all of the following except
answer
values the client and clinician share.
question
The authors suggest a practitioner adequately address the issue of personal competence through
answer
continuing education.
question
The Internet can be used to provide career services to clients in all of the following ways except to
answer
eliminate the need for counselor support.
question
State laws and ethical standards are congruent
answer
---not always
question
Compared to ethical codes or statutes, ethical principles
answer
---provide a more solid framework for decision making.
question
Regarding medical ethics, Beauchamp and Childress (2001) address-
answer
-veracity, privacy, and confidentiality.
question
When questions pertain to proper practice all of the following principles can be used to help career professionals identify appropriate behaviors except
answer
loyalty
question
Underlying all questions (and answers) related to ethical and legal behavior in career development interventions are--
answer
-values assumptions.
question
The three parts of Super's segmental theory are life span, life space, and---
answer
self-concept.
question
In Super's theory, adolescents' readiness for career decision making is known as—
answer
career maturity
question
Self-concepts developed through comparison of the self with others are known as—
answer
objective
question
One factor that influences life role salience is—
answer
the dominant culture
question
According to Super, methods used to guide and clarify vocational identities for clients are---
answer
neither of the above (neither developmental or cognitive/behavioral)
question
In Gottfredson's model, the process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and social class is labeled-
answer
--circumscription
question
In terms of Holland's theory, congruence describes the degree of fit between an individual's personality type and that of his or her—
answer
current or prospective work environment
question
In Holland's model, the degree of relatedness within types, such that similar types are located next to each other and have more in common, is a concept called
answer
—consistency
question
Krumboltz proposes to use indecision in the counseling process as--
answer
a desirable quality that motivates clients to engage in new learning experiences
question
The theory that has generated more research than any other seems to be that of—
answer
Holland
question
According to the authors, the emerging theories of career counseling tend to do all of the following except:--
answer
focus on objective scores rather than the client's subjective experience.
question
The sources that shape self-efficacy beliefs include--
answer
vicarious learning and social persuasion.
question
Social cognitive theory focuses closely on--
answer
addressing performance attainments and persistence in overcoming obstacles.
question
In the executive processing domain of the CASVE model, control and monitoring are essential for deciphering the information needed-- to resolve a career problem and determine when to move to the next phase.
answer
to resolve a career problem and determine when to move to the next phase.
question
The function of the executive processing domain in the cognitive information processing approach is to-
answer
- initiate, coordinate, and monitor the storage and retrieval of information.
question
According to Brown, values serve as standards by which people evaluate their--
answer
own actions and the actions of others.
question
Hansen's integrative life planning model is unique in that its emphasis is on integrating--
answer
the mind, body, and spirit.
question
The tasks of the ILP model include all of the following except--
answer
making the most money with the least effort.
question
Constructivism is a concept that accepts that people--
answer
are active organizers of their own experiences.
question
The Values-Based Approach is based on all of the following assumptions except--
answer
values are assessed through qualitative, not quantitative, means.
question
Assessment is defined as
answer
any formal or informal technique used to collect data about a client.
question
When interpreting an inventory, all of the following are important expect
answer
indicating that the results of the inventory are the best sources of information
question
A primary characteristic of informal assessment is that
answer
it can be interesting and stimulate good discussions.
question
An acceptable test-retest reliability coefficient is
answer
.8
question
If, on the Kuder Career Search interest inventory, for example, a person has a score at the 88th percentile on the scale called Outdoor, it means that
answer
the person's interest in outdoor activities is higher than 88% of those in a norm group.
question
Though assessment may be used in several steps of the career planning process, its greatest usefulness is likely to be at Step
answer
2
question
Which of the following is most likely to have "right and wrong answers"?
answer
tests
question
All of the following are true of formal assessments except that they
answer
are usually free of charge.
question
A raw score indicates
answer
the total number of responses related to some category.
question
Any of the following could be used to measure interests except
answer
WorkKeys.
question
At Step 4 of the career decision-making process, students or clients are most likely to need information about
answer
occupations.
question
Of the various types of deciders described by Dinklage, the type most likely to have the easiest time making a vocational choice is the
answer
planful
question
Several websites that are particularly useful for career planning and information have been developed by the
answer
Department of Labor
question
When choosing a system for organizing occupations, it is better for guidance purposes if
answer
there is a way to link what the person knows about self to occupational options. page 205 (Page 205 states that career planning is the process of making educational and vocational choices based on knowledge of self and the environment. When choosing a system for organizing occupations, it would be better for guidance purposes if the student could link what they know about self to occupational options.
question
A counselor has the responsibility to
answer
assist students to turn data into information that helps with decision making.
question
The website called O*Net is a replacement for the former Department of Labor publication
answer
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
question
Holland's typology is very useful in career guidance programs because
answer
all of the above
question
The Bobby Standards identifies compliance of websites that are likely to be accessible to
answer
those with visual disability.
question
Which of the following is not a type of data typically provided by career centers?
answer
Benefits packages
question
All of the following are true for effective career centers except that they need to
answer
be staffed by a certified counselor.
question
21. The first computer-assisted career guidance systems were developed
answer
in the 60's.
question
The term crosswalking refers to
answer
linking related databases.
question
One way in which high touch can be added to high tech while serving multiple students
answer
classroom instruction.
question
All of the following are characteristics of career planning systems except that they
answer
typically include. no searchable databases.
question
The early computer-assisted systems had all of the following expect
answer
full-motion video.
question
Career information systems that include state-specific data were encouraged by
answer
NOICC.
question
All of the following are strong assets of computer-based system except the capability to
answer
identify whether the user can profit from its use.
question
Research about the use of computer-based systems indicates that
answer
the best gains are made by a client when technology and counselor support are combined.
question
One of the primary ethical issues with cyber-counseling is
answer
security of communication.
question
The primary player(s) in setting ethical guidelines for cybercounseling is/are the
answer
All of the organizations above.
question
Historically, the counseling profession developed or emerged from all of the following except
answer
Freudian psychoanalysis.
question
The practice of career counseling has a close theoretical and practical relationship with
answer
psychotherapy.
question
Critics contends that career counseling is described by all of the following except that it
answer
is less difficult than psychotherapy.
question
Students of counseling and mental health practitioners often lack enthusiasm for the practice of career counseling because they view it as a process that
answer
is very directive and limited to test administration and interpretation.
question
Career counselors provide support to clients by all of the following except:
answer
telling the clients what the solution to their problem is
question
The basic skills career counselors need are
answer
the same as for any other counselor.
question
In order to help people make meaning out of their life experiences, career counselors pay attention to the client's:
answer
subjective experience
question
Regardless of the theoretical perspectives used by career counselors, broad topics addressed in the first phase include all of the following except the client's
answer
potential employers.
question
The acronym PLEASE has been proposed as a guide to
answer
show clients that their views matter.
question
The NCDA offers this type of certification to counselors who are licensed and have received supervised career counseling training
answer
Master Career Counselor (MCC)
question
In order to justify limiting career-related activities in schools, critics have cited
answer
both of these (time spent away from academic disciplines AND student's right to be in charge of their career decisions)
question
Super, Savickas, and Super (1996) identified all of the following as major career development tasks that children should accomplish except
answer
adhere to gender and work roles fitting the dominant culture.
question
An important goal of career development interventions in elementary school is to:
answer
counteract environmental factors that pressure students to prematurely commit to a specific job or career path.
question
Skills like being reliable, getting along with one's co-workers, being trustworthy, and completing assignments on time are called
answer
self-management.
question
The greatest influence on the career development of children derives from
answer
parents.
question
Program planners in schools should be sensitive to the political climate in which they operate because
answer
funding of programs requires backing and support by school administrators and school boards.
question
When it comes to planning and disseminating information about career program delivery, counselors should collaborate with
answer
both teachers and parents.
question
Careers start to unfold and develop in
answer
pre-school
question
Because elementary school aged children have not yet had the opportunity to explore career options fully, counselors should
answer
work toward counteracting environmental factors that pressure students to commit prematurely to occupational options.
question
According to Havighurst, activities involved during middle childhood (ages 6-11) include all of the following except
answer
identify the difference between right and wrong
question
Suggestions provided in the text to encourage parental involvement in their children's career development include
answer
evening information sessions and newsletters.
question
Assessment tools to measure interests and abilities include all of the following except the
answer
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
question
An adolescent makes strides toward independence by developing
answer
socially and psychologically.
question
Career choice readiness includes all of the above.
answer
(a planful attitude, gathering information about education,exploring the world of work)
question
Appropriate career goals for high school students, as proposed by the National Career Development Guidelines, include all of the following except
answer
career development
question
Teachers, counselors, and curriculum designers expect middle school students to
answer
learn about themselves and the world of work and then translate this learning into an educational plan for the remainder of their secondary school education
question
It is important for career interventions to continue to stimulate curiosity in middle school students because
answer
those who are curious about their emerging self-concepts are more likely to engage in exploratory behavior to acquire the information they need.
question
The most useful foundation for the exploration process is provided by
answer
combining interests inventories with aptitude test results.
question
According to Super, the tasks of crystallizing, specifying, and implementing tentative career choices occur during all of the following stages except
answer
early adulthood
question
The readiness to cope with the various career development tasks confronting an individual is known as
answer
career maturity.
question
In the role of advocacy, counselors
answer
convince stakeholders of the importance of services.
question
A target population is a group
answer
designated to receive services.
question
Purposes for writing measurable objectives include
answer
all of the above.
question
One of the most feasible ways to deliver career planning services at the high school level is answer:
answer
group guidance.
question
Evaluation of career planning services must be closely tied to
answer
measurable objectives.
question
Where it is problematic in a school setting to get dedicated time to deliver career planning services, perhaps the best single approach is to
answer
infuse them into existing curriculum
question
The first step in planning an evaluation is to
answer
determine specific measurable objectives of the services.
question
Of the following, the most easily measured objective is
answer
...given the titles of 18 occupations, will be able to sort them correctly into six clusters.
question
Stakeholders are persons who
answer
are affected in any way by services or programs.
question
Measurable objectives are used to
answer
clearly define the desired outcomes.
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question
Parsons' tripartite model for vocational direction developed into the approach to career development interventions known as
answer
---Trait-and-factor
question
The goal of the trait-and-factor approach to career counseling is to
answer
-Identify the degree of fit between the person and the occupation.
question
The Career Pattern Study was
answer
One of the first longitudinal studies of career development.
question
Which of the following was the first to shift the focus of career development interventions to that of an ongoing process?
answer
Donald Super
question
The main organization for professional career counselors is the
answer
National Career Development Association.
question
According to Savickas, the competencies which will become the main areas of focus for career counselors are
answer
Critical thinking, self-affirmation, and commitment to community.
question
The idea that feelings in one area of life affect feelings in another area of living is known as which of the following:
answer
Spillover hypothesis
question
Those adhering to a self-fulfilling work ethic are seeking a career that allows them to be
answer
Involved in family, community, leisure, and/or other life roles.
question
A systematic process for occupational decision-making, labeled true reasoning, was developed by
answer
Parsons.
question
The work of James Cattell, Alfred Binet, and Walter Bingham contributed extensively to the emphasis of ________ in career counseling
answer
Testing
question
The 2 x 2 matrix used to classify career practitioners' actions includes behavior that is
answer
legal and ethical.
question
When a client's concerns include depressive feelings, low self-esteem, and other serious mental health issues, career counselors should
answer
assess whether they can adequately deal with the problem at hand or should refer the client to another professional.
question
Dealing with ethical issues and values, Herr and Niles (1988) stress awareness of all of the following except
answer
values the client and clinician share.
question
The authors suggest a practitioner adequately address the issue of personal competence through
answer
continuing education.
question
The Internet can be used to provide career services to clients in all of the following ways except to
answer
eliminate the need for counselor support.
question
State laws and ethical standards are congruent
answer
---not always
question
Compared to ethical codes or statutes, ethical principles
answer
---provide a more solid framework for decision making.
question
Regarding medical ethics, Beauchamp and Childress (2001) address-
answer
-veracity, privacy, and confidentiality.
question
When questions pertain to proper practice all of the following principles can be used to help career professionals identify appropriate behaviors except
answer
loyalty
question
Underlying all questions (and answers) related to ethical and legal behavior in career development interventions are--
answer
-values assumptions.
question
The three parts of Super's segmental theory are life span, life space, and---
answer
self-concept.
question
In Super's theory, adolescents' readiness for career decision making is known as—
answer
career maturity
question
Self-concepts developed through comparison of the self with others are known as—
answer
objective
question
One factor that influences life role salience is—
answer
the dominant culture
question
According to Super, methods used to guide and clarify vocational identities for clients are---
answer
neither of the above (neither developmental or cognitive/behavioral)
question
In Gottfredson's model, the process of eliminating unacceptable occupational alternatives based primarily on gender and social class is labeled-
answer
--circumscription
question
In terms of Holland's theory, congruence describes the degree of fit between an individual's personality type and that of his or her—
answer
current or prospective work environment
question
In Holland's model, the degree of relatedness within types, such that similar types are located next to each other and have more in common, is a concept called
answer
—consistency
question
Krumboltz proposes to use indecision in the counseling process as--
answer
a desirable quality that motivates clients to engage in new learning experiences
question
The theory that has generated more research than any other seems to be that of—
answer
Holland
question
According to the authors, the emerging theories of career counseling tend to do all of the following except:--
answer
focus on objective scores rather than the client's subjective experience.
question
The sources that shape self-efficacy beliefs include--
answer
vicarious learning and social persuasion.
question
Social cognitive theory focuses closely on--
answer
addressing performance attainments and persistence in overcoming obstacles.
question
In the executive processing domain of the CASVE model, control and monitoring are essential for deciphering the information needed-- to resolve a career problem and determine when to move to the next phase.
answer
to resolve a career problem and determine when to move to the next phase.
question
The function of the executive processing domain in the cognitive information processing approach is to-
answer
- initiate, coordinate, and monitor the storage and retrieval of information.
question
According to Brown, values serve as standards by which people evaluate their--
answer
own actions and the actions of others.
question
Hansen's integrative life planning model is unique in that its emphasis is on integrating--
answer
the mind, body, and spirit.
question
The tasks of the ILP model include all of the following except--
answer
making the most money with the least effort.
question
Constructivism is a concept that accepts that people--
answer
are active organizers of their own experiences.
question
The Values-Based Approach is based on all of the following assumptions except--
answer
values are assessed through qualitative, not quantitative, means.
question
Assessment is defined as
answer
any formal or informal technique used to collect data about a client.
question
When interpreting an inventory, all of the following are important expect
answer
indicating that the results of the inventory are the best sources of information
question
A primary characteristic of informal assessment is that
answer
it can be interesting and stimulate good discussions.
question
An acceptable test-retest reliability coefficient is
answer
.8
question
If, on the Kuder Career Search interest inventory, for example, a person has a score at the 88th percentile on the scale called Outdoor, it means that
answer
the person's interest in outdoor activities is higher than 88% of those in a norm group.
question
Though assessment may be used in several steps of the career planning process, its greatest usefulness is likely to be at Step
answer
2
question
Which of the following is most likely to have "right and wrong answers"?
answer
tests
question
All of the following are true of formal assessments except that they
answer
are usually free of charge.
question
A raw score indicates
answer
the total number of responses related to some category.
question
Any of the following could be used to measure interests except
answer
WorkKeys.
question
At Step 4 of the career decision-making process, students or clients are most likely to need information about
answer
occupations.
question
Of the various types of deciders described by Dinklage, the type most likely to have the easiest time making a vocational choice is the
answer
planful
question
Several websites that are particularly useful for career planning and information have been developed by the
answer
Department of Labor
question
When choosing a system for organizing occupations, it is better for guidance purposes if
answer
there is a way to link what the person knows about self to occupational options. page 205 (Page 205 states that career planning is the process of making educational and vocational choices based on knowledge of self and the environment. When choosing a system for organizing occupations, it would be better for guidance purposes if the student could link what they know about self to occupational options.
question
A counselor has the responsibility to
answer
assist students to turn data into information that helps with decision making.
question
The website called O*Net is a replacement for the former Department of Labor publication
answer
The Dictionary of Occupational Titles.
question
Holland's typology is very useful in career guidance programs because
answer
all of the above
question
The Bobby Standards identifies compliance of websites that are likely to be accessible to
answer
those with visual disability.
question
Which of the following is not a type of data typically provided by career centers?
answer
Benefits packages
question
All of the following are true for effective career centers except that they need to
answer
be staffed by a certified counselor.
question
21. The first computer-assisted career guidance systems were developed
answer
in the 60's.
question
The term crosswalking refers to
answer
linking related databases.
question
One way in which high touch can be added to high tech while serving multiple students
answer
classroom instruction.
question
All of the following are characteristics of career planning systems except that they
answer
typically include. no searchable databases.
question
The early computer-assisted systems had all of the following expect
answer
full-motion video.
question
Career information systems that include state-specific data were encouraged by
answer
NOICC.
question
All of the following are strong assets of computer-based system except the capability to
answer
identify whether the user can profit from its use.
question
Research about the use of computer-based systems indicates that
answer
the best gains are made by a client when technology and counselor support are combined.
question
One of the primary ethical issues with cyber-counseling is
answer
security of communication.
question
The primary player(s) in setting ethical guidelines for cybercounseling is/are the
answer
All of the organizations above.
question
Historically, the counseling profession developed or emerged from all of the following except
answer
Freudian psychoanalysis.
question
The practice of career counseling has a close theoretical and practical relationship with
answer
psychotherapy.
question
Critics contends that career counseling is described by all of the following except that it
answer
is less difficult than psychotherapy.
question
Students of counseling and mental health practitioners often lack enthusiasm for the practice of career counseling because they view it as a process that
answer
is very directive and limited to test administration and interpretation.
question
Career counselors provide support to clients by all of the following except:
answer
telling the clients what the solution to their problem is
question
The basic skills career counselors need are
answer
the same as for any other counselor.
question
In order to help people make meaning out of their life experiences, career counselors pay attention to the client's:
answer
subjective experience
question
Regardless of the theoretical perspectives used by career counselors, broad topics addressed in the first phase include all of the following except the client's
answer
potential employers.
question
The acronym PLEASE has been proposed as a guide to
answer
show clients that their views matter.
question
The NCDA offers this type of certification to counselors who are licensed and have received supervised career counseling training
answer
Master Career Counselor (MCC)
question
In order to justify limiting career-related activities in schools, critics have cited
answer
both of these (time spent away from academic disciplines AND student's right to be in charge of their career decisions)
question
Super, Savickas, and Super (1996) identified all of the following as major career development tasks that children should accomplish except
answer
adhere to gender and work roles fitting the dominant culture.
question
An important goal of career development interventions in elementary school is to:
answer
counteract environmental factors that pressure students to prematurely commit to a specific job or career path.
question
Skills like being reliable, getting along with one's co-workers, being trustworthy, and completing assignments on time are called
answer
self-management.
question
The greatest influence on the career development of children derives from
answer
parents.
question
Program planners in schools should be sensitive to the political climate in which they operate because
answer
funding of programs requires backing and support by school administrators and school boards.
question
When it comes to planning and disseminating information about career program delivery, counselors should collaborate with
answer
both teachers and parents.
question
Careers start to unfold and develop in
answer
pre-school
question
Because elementary school aged children have not yet had the opportunity to explore career options fully, counselors should
answer
work toward counteracting environmental factors that pressure students to commit prematurely to occupational options.
question
According to Havighurst, activities involved during middle childhood (ages 6-11) include all of the following except
answer
identify the difference between right and wrong
question
Suggestions provided in the text to encourage parental involvement in their children's career development include
answer
evening information sessions and newsletters.
question
Assessment tools to measure interests and abilities include all of the following except the
answer
Myers-Briggs Type Indicator.
question
An adolescent makes strides toward independence by developing
answer
socially and psychologically.
question
Career choice readiness includes all of the above.
answer
(a planful attitude, gathering information about education,exploring the world of work)
question
Appropriate career goals for high school students, as proposed by the National Career Development Guidelines, include all of the following except
answer
career development
question
Teachers, counselors, and curriculum designers expect middle school students to
answer
learn about themselves and the world of work and then translate this learning into an educational plan for the remainder of their secondary school education
question
It is important for career interventions to continue to stimulate curiosity in middle school students because
answer
those who are curious about their emerging self-concepts are more likely to engage in exploratory behavior to acquire the information they need.
question
The most useful foundation for the exploration process is provided by
answer
combining interests inventories with aptitude test results.
question
According to Super, the tasks of crystallizing, specifying, and implementing tentative career choices occur during all of the following stages except
answer
early adulthood
question
The readiness to cope with the various career development tasks confronting an individual is known as
answer
career maturity.
question
In the role of advocacy, counselors
answer
convince stakeholders of the importance of services.
question
A target population is a group
answer
designated to receive services.
question
Purposes for writing measurable objectives include
answer
all of the above.
question
One of the most feasible ways to deliver career planning services at the high school level is answer:
answer
group guidance.
question
Evaluation of career planning services must be closely tied to
answer
measurable objectives.
question
Where it is problematic in a school setting to get dedicated time to deliver career planning services, perhaps the best single approach is to
answer
infuse them into existing curriculum
question
The first step in planning an evaluation is to
answer
determine specific measurable objectives of the services.
question
Of the following, the most easily measured objective is
answer
...given the titles of 18 occupations, will be able to sort them correctly into six clusters.
question
Stakeholders are persons who
answer
are affected in any way by services or programs.
question
Measurable objectives are used to
answer
clearly define the desired outcomes.
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