# 5th Grade Science: FOSS Variable

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Variable

A factor that can be changed in a experiment and might affect the outcome
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Standard Cycle

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Pendulum

A mass hanging from a fixed point that is free to swing to and fro
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System

A set of objects that work together
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Mass

The amount of matter an object contains
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Lifeboat

A boat used to carry passengers away from sinking ships
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Two-Coordinate Graph

A graph that shows the outcome of a series of experience when a variable is changed by steps
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Controlled Experiment

An experiment which one, and only one, variable is changed in order to test its effect
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Plane

An aircraft that is heavier than air which is kept aloft by upward thrust of air on its fixed wings and driven by propellers
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X Axis

The horizontal axis in a plane coordinate system
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Y Axis

The vertical axis in a plane coordinate system
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Catapult

A lever arm that is loaded with energy. When the energy is released, any object resting on the end of the lever is hurled into the air
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Controlled Variable

What is kept the same in a controlled experiment to ensure a \”fair test\”
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Independent Variable

The variable that is changed in an experiment
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Dependent Variable

The variable that is measured in an experiment
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How many trials should a good scientist conduct?

3 or more
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What was the relationship we discovered between the length of our swingers and the amount of swings?

The longer the swinger the fewer the swings. The shorter the swinger the more swings
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On what axis is the independent variable graphed?

The X axis
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On what axis is the dependent variable graphed?

The Y Axis
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What were the parts of our swinger system?

String, penny (mass), tape, paper clip, and a pencil
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How can you tell if you need to retest the outcome of a trial after graphing your data?

The outcome does not match or is too far away from our line of best fit
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Cycle

Any pattern that repeats itself
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Prediction

An estimation based on information or experience
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In our swingers experiment, what was/were the independent variable(s)?

The length of the string
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In our swingers experiment, what was/were the dependent variable(s)?

The number of cycles in 15 seconds
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In our swingers experiment, what was/were the controlled variables?

The mass of the bob and the release position
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Standard

A procedure that has been established to compare future experiments with
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True or False, this is a controlled experiment: John wanted to test how fast different batteries ran out of power. He put some batteries in his toys, then he played with them. His radio controlled can batteries failed before his calculator did so he concluded those batteries had less power.

False
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Why is this not a controlled experiment? John wanted to test how fast different batteries ran out of power. He put some batteries in his toys, then he played with them. His radio controlled can batteries failed before his calculator did so he concluded those batteries had less power.

He tested two different toys, each could have used different amounts of batteries, the calculator could use less power. He only tested once. He didn’t control his variables
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What was the relationship we discovered between the capacity of our lifeboats and the passengers it could hold?

The greater the capacity the more passengers it could hold
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What was the relationship we discovered between the distance our foss plane travelled and the passengers (mass) it could carry?

The more passengers (mass) you have the shorter the distance your plane will travel
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What was the relationship we discovered between the length of our swingers and the amount of swings?

The longer the swinger the fewer the swings. The shorter the swinger the more swings
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What was the relationship we discovered between distance our foss plane travelled and the angle of the flight line?

The higher the angle the shorter the distance the plane traveled
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What changes could you make to our flipper system to make our cork go higher?

Choose the cork with the least mass, put the cork near the end of the flipper, push the flipper stick down all of the way, and push the flipper to the 1 cm mark
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What changes could you make to our flipper system to make the cork travel farther?

Choose the cork with the least mass, put the cork near the end of the flipper stick, only push the flipper stick down part way, move the flipper to 3 cm mark
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What were the parts of our swinger system?

String, penny (mass), tape, paper clip, and a pencil
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What were the parts of our flipper (catapult) system?

Cork (Projectile), Base, Angle Adjuster, Popsicle Stick (arm)
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What were the parts of our lifeboat system?

Paper cup, passengers (mass), water, and basin
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What were the parts of our foss plane system?

craft sticks, rubber band, propeller, straws, plastic hooks, tape, the flight line, measurer
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What was the relationship between the angle of the catapult base and the distance travelled by the ball?

The higher the angle the farther the ball travelled
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What can you use to predict the results of an experiment?

A two coordinate graph or another form of a graph
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What are the three types of graphs we used during our investigations?

concrete, picture, two coordinate graphs
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Capacity