1920s and 1930s – Flashcards

question
UNDERLINED IN THE POWERPOINT BUT NOT ON THE REVIEW
answer
***
question
widespread social and economic change occurred
answer
The 1920s are sometimes called the "Roaring Twenties" because
question
World War I
answer
The change in Western civilization in the 1920s grew out of
question
- Austrian physician - founded psychoanalysis - Freudian Psychology
answer
Sigmund Freud
question
- Nativism - Anglo Saxon racism - Militant Protestantism
answer
***Reaction to problems
question
- we don't like new people - political radicals were immigrants - 1/2 of white men and 1/3 of white women working in industries (low-paying jobs) were foreign born - Socialism and Anarchism were prevalent in the regions they came from
answer
Nativism
question
- Italian immigrants - arrested May 5, 1920 - stole $16,000 and killed paymaster and guard - When arrested, both were armed, lied to police, and were identified by eyewitnesses - it was the height of the Italian immigration and anarchist violence - Judge was openly prejudicial - convicted and ordered executed mainly of political beliefs - 7 years of appeal - worldwide appeals for mercy - executed in 1927
answer
Sacco and Venzetti
question
- Emergency Immigration Act of 1921--restricted European immigration - Immigration Act of 1924--reduced immigration further - Calvin Coolidge--"America must be kept American" - completely excluded people from East Asia - left open Western Hemisphere countries - People of Latin American descent became the fastest growing ethnic minority
answer
***Immigration
question
Coolidge pursues policies that wanted to reduce immigration in the US
answer
What does the phrase "America must be kept American" mean?
question
- revival of the Klan - wanted 100% Americans - Native born white Protestants - No Blacks, Catholics, Jews, or immigrants
answer
***Anglo Saxon Racism
question
- saw new ideas that the Bible should be studied in the light of modern scholarship as a threat - did not believe that religion should be reconciled with scientific theories of evolution - *William Jennings Bryan--leader of movement*
answer
Militant Protestants
question
- 1921 -- promoting laws banning Darwinism in school - 1925 -- Tennessee outlawed teaching evolution in public schools and colleges - ACLU used science teacher, John Scopes, as a test case Bryan=prosecution Clarence Darrow=defense Bryan--Fundamentalist Darrow--Agnostic Judge--Evangelist - debate became about fundamentalism vs modernism - Judge ruled out scientific testimony - defense called Bryan, an expert witness on biblical interpretation - entrapped statesman in literal-minded interpretations and exposed his ignorance of the bible - ISSUE: had he taught evolution--guilty
answer
***The Scopes Trial
question
science and religion
answer
The 1925 trial of John Scopes reflects the conflict between
question
- Anti-Saloon League - most effective pressure groups - Protestant churches - also ethnic and social prejudices - wartime spirit of sacrifice - need to use grain for food - German American brewers - the cause was now patriotic - 1917--passed - no adequate enforcement - did to curb thirst for alcohol - gave rise to organized crime
answer
***Prohibition
question
...
answer
By 1917, Prohibition had become viewed as
question
it couldn't be enforced
answer
Prohibition failed because
question
A rise in criminal organizations that supplied illegal liquor.
answer
One clear result of Prohibition was
question
- involved in illegal activity - busted on tax evasion
answer
Al Capone
question
- dismissing old fashioned vales of immigrant parents - small-town life--boring and old fashioned - cities--vice, crime, corruption, and foreigners
answer
***Cultural Conflict
question
traditional values and changing lifestyles
answer
During the 1920s, controversies concerning the Scopes trial, national Prohibition, and the behavior of "flappers" were all signs of disagreement over
question
F. Scott Fitzgerald
answer
Who coined the phrase the "Jazz Age?"
question
- one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century - alcoholic - wife was mentally unstable
answer
F. Scott Fitzgerald
question
- African American cultural movement - racial pride and self-reliance - "New Negro" is popularized, implying an advocacy of dignity and a refusal to the Jim Crow laws
answer
The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s
question
- exalted blackness - black cultural expression - black exclusiveness
answer
Negro Nationalism movement
question
Marcus Garvey
answer
A prominent advocate of African-American self-reliance and migration to Africa was
question
believed blacks would never be treated justly in countries ruled by whites so he urged them to return to Africa
answer
The philosophy of Marcus Garvey?
question
- 4 years after WWI--recession - 1922--economy recovered and grew
answer
***The American Economy
question
boosts productivity by 40% by 1920
answer
Henry Ford
question
installment buying and an unregulated stock market INCREASE SALES WITH - heavy advertisement - installment buying plans
answer
The economic boom and the financial speculation of the 1920s were caused in part by
question
Warren G. Harding
answer
"Return to Normalcy" is associated with which president
question
- promised a return of the nation to "normalcy" - return to "America first" encouraged industrialization and a strong economy independent of foreign influence - he departed from the progressive movement - he had 2 affairs, one which resulted to an illegitimate child - He was a limited man and knew it. He wanted to be loved, not great.
answer
Warren G. Harding
question
- President Harding's friends and political contributors - he rewarded them with financially powerful positions - scandals and corruption eventually pervaded his adminstration - Harding was able to avoid scandal because he probably did not know all that was taking place in his administration
answer
What was the Ohio Gang?
question
took bribes for leasing federal oil lands
answer
The central scandal of the Teapot Dome involved members of Harding's Cabinet who
question
weak-willed and tolerant of corruption among his friends
answer
As president, Warren G. Harding proved to be
question
Polls of historians and scholars have consistently ranked Harding as one of the worst Presidents.
answer
How has history judged Harding?
question
Calvin Coolidge
answer
It was said his political genius was a talent for effectively doing nothing
question
- VP for Harding - became President after Harding suddenly died and collapsed after a stop in California - Conservative - "Keep Cool with Coolidge"--1924 election--won solidly - promoted diversity--appointed Jews to cabinet - worked for women's rights - contributed to the economic boom of the 1920s - refused to use Federal economic power to check the growing boom or help the depressed condition of agriculture and certain industries - his called for isolation in foreign policy - he reverted to a passive stance and deferred to Congress - he believed the success of the country was tied to big business - developed industry at the expense of labor and agriculture - end of government regulation - reduced taxes
answer
Calvin Coolidge
question
the free-enterprise system
answer
"The business of America is business" - President Calvin Coolidge. By making this statement, President Coolidge was expressing his support for
question
- flood of consumer goods now accessible to middle class - had to get rid of idea of plain living and make Americans go on a shopping spree - mass advertising undermine notion of frugality - buying bolsters self esteem - movies, radio, and telephones created a homogeneous culture
answer
What is the Consumer Culture developed during the 1920s?
question
1. Vacuum cleaners 2. Cameras 3. Wrist Watches 4. Washing machines 5. National Magazines 6. Chain Stores 7. Syndicated News 8. Movies - 50 million customers a week 9. Brand Names 10. Radio Programs
answer
List 3 new technologies of the 1920s
question
farmers FARMING - weakest part of the economy - prices low - foreclosures and bankruptcies - many farms got large and more mechanized
answer
Which group of Americans generally failed to experience the economic prosperity of the 1920s?
question
Herbert Hoover
answer
First President born west of the Mississippi
question
ELECTION OF 1928 - Herbert Hoover--Republican - The Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s - Smith was anti-Catholic and anti-prohibitionist - Hoover won a landslide victory - first President born west of the Mississippi - only Iowan President - Quaker
answer
Herbert Hoover
question
had the economic effect of crippling international trade and deepening the depression - Economists of the era petitioned Hoover to veto - Hoover went along because it was an election year - Economists were right
answer
The sky high Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930
question
- A few stock market investors began selling their stock. They predicted that the bull market might end soon, leaving them in debt. - Seeing these few investors sell, others soon followed creating a domino effect. - The sudden selling caused stock prices to fall. - Nervous brokers asked investors to pay their debts, and when they couldn't pay, they were forced to sell, causing stock prices to fall more even more. - bank failures crushed the average American - When they went to withdraw their money, it had been lent out so they lost their savings
answer
The stock market crash of 1929
question
- Tuesday, October 29, 1929 - stock prices plummeted because there were no buyers for the stock offered by desperate sellers. - Millions of dollars were lost that day due to the decrease in stock prices. - beginning of stock market crash - led directly to the Great Depression (also buying on margin(credit))
answer
Black Tuesday
question
the economy would recover on its own
answer
When the Great Depression began in 1929, the most common economic belief was
question
voluntary cooperation by business leaders in restoring the public confidence in the economy.
answer
Hoover's first efforts to control the Depression focused on
question
federal welfare programs to give relief directly to the poor
answer
Methods of fighting the Depression President Herbert Hoover opposed throughout his administration?
question
refusal to provide direct federal aid to the homeless
answer
In the 1930s, shantytowns, often called "Hoovervilles," sprang up across the United States because of President Herbert Hoover's
question
was blamed for the suffering of the poor
answer
During the Great Depression, expressions such as Hoovervilles and Hoover blankets showed that President Hoover
question
failed to provide direct relief for the neediest persons
answer
President Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression was often criticized because it
question
*C* - Credit Expansion *R* - Reparations *A* - American industry too dominant Europe too dependent on US *S* - Stock Market Crash *H* - High protective tariffs
answer
Explain C.R.A.S.H.
question
- an ecological and human disaster that took place in the southwest - caused by misuse of land and years of sustained drought - As the land dried up, great clouds of dust and sand carried by the wind covered everything - many moved to the west coast to find jobs - left Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, and Oklahoma to head west - many people migrated to California - didn't find a better life
answer
***Dust Bowl
question
overfarming and severe drought
answer
What were two basic causes of the Dust Bowl during the early 1930s?
question
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT - believed government had a responsibility to help people in need and provide direct relief - governmental involvement in people's lives was a good source for those in need - believed capitalism and laissez faire needed to be reformed HERBERT HOOVER - believed that federal government should not try to fix people's problems - he believed direct relief would destroy people's self-respect - he believed it would create a big government which would violate laissez faire
answer
Compare Hoover and Roosevelt
question
more willing to use government intervention to solve economic problems
answer
Difference between the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt and President Herbert Hoover is that Roosevelt was
question
ELECTION OF 1932 - Democrat--FDR - Republican--Herbert Hoover - Americans believed FDR could get the country out of the depression and put people back to work - FDR appealed to the common man because he was crippled - promised to help the people through the Great Depression by direct governmental involvement
answer
Franklin D. Roosevelt
question
became the eyes and ears for her husband
answer
Eleanor Roosevelt
question
- for the Great Depression - FDR urged people not to be afraid, but instead to think positively. - said that being afraid would not help the country recover, and would only make things worse.
answer
What does the phrase "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" mean?
question
1. reviving the devastated economy 2. relieving the human misery brought on by the Great Depression 3. alleviating the desperate plight of farmers
answer
Three challenges facing FDR in 1932
question
1. Enforcement of anti-trust laws (restore competition) 2. Suspend anti-trust to allow business to collaborate with government to "manage" the economy 3. Expand welfare programs and infuse government spending
answer
***FDR's Ideas
question
to reassure the American people and help restore faith in democracy
answer
Why did Roosevelt come on the radio with his Fireside Chats?
question
15 proposals were sent to Congress and all 15 were approved
answer
What was significant about Roosevelt's first 100 days in office?
question
declaring a national bank holiday
answer
Roosevelt's first bold action of the Hundred Days was
question
- FDR's second day in office - declared a 4 day banking holiday - to halt hysteria and restore confidence in the financial system Emergency Banking Relief Act - took only 7 hours to pass - permitted sound banks to reopen and provide managers for those still in trouble
answer
Banking Holiday
question
The economy sometimes needs public money to encourage business activity.
answer
Basic idea of President Franklin D Roosevelt's New Deal?
question
providing federal aid to many sectors of the economy
answer
The New Deal tried to solve many problems of the Great Depression by
question
1. Renew democracy 2. Restore confidence in the banking 3. Stimulate economy 4. Put people back to work 5. Restore self-confidence
answer
Five goals of the New Deal
question
- relief--ease suffering of the needy - recovery--begin economic growth - reform--prevent another depression
answer
FDRs 3 Rs?
question
overextended the power of the federal government
answer
The Supreme Court declared some New Deal laws unconstitutional because these laws
question
Refinancing of farms at a lower interest rate
answer
***Farm Credit Administration
question
Refinanced mortgages for those living in cities
answer
***Home Owners Loan Act
question
to provide jobs and experience for unemployed young people
answer
The primary purpose of the Civilian Conservation Corps was
question
- provided federal jobs and wages - 4 million people - highway repairs, lay sewer lines - constructing and improving 100 airports and 4000 schools - created 50000 teaching jobs
answer
***Civil Works Administration
question
- protected farmers from price drops and overproduction - paid farmers (subsidies) - teach farmers methods to prevent Dust Bowl
answer
***Agricultural Adjustment Acts
question
Tennessee River
answer
The major New Deal program that attempted to provide flood control, electric power, and economic development occurred in the valley of the
question
federal intervention to meet regional needs
answer
The creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority is an example of
question
paid farmers to cut back production
answer
***Agricultural Adjustment Administration
question
- extended loans to farmers - kept crops off the market
answer
***Commodity Credit Corporation
question
Securities and Exchange Commission
answer
Which New Deal program was chiefly designed to correct abuses in the stock market?
question
attempted to restore public confidence in financial institutions
answer
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Securities and Exchange Commission established during the New Deal, were important because they
question
pensions, unemployment insurance, aid to blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children - response to critics
answer
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided for
question
1. US government and President too powerful 2. Violated laissez faire 3. Supreme Court declared NIRA and AAA unconstitutional
answer
Three criticisms of the New Deal
question
Father Coughlin and Huey Long
answer
Strong political challenges to Roosevelt came from extremist critics like
question
- A Roman Catholic priest - criticized FDR in a weekly radio program - believed an international conspiracy of bankers existed and FDR influenced them - called for the nationalization of banks and utilities (US gov. controls banks, Socialism)
answer
Father Coughlin
question
made people dependent on the Federal Government - deficit spending--government spends money to stimulate the economy and help people even if it mean US government goes into debt. - welfare state--created a population of Americans who relied on the US government to live
answer
A major criticism of FDR's programs to combat the Great Depression was that these programs
question
1. Stimulated the economy 2. Put people back to work 3. Improved moral and self-confidence of the people 4. US government's role changes and became directly involved in helping people 5. WWII ended the Depression, not FDR's New Deal
answer
Five successes of the New Deal
question
trying to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court
answer
Which action by President Franklin D. Roosevelt challenged the principle of checks and balances?
question
British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
answer
John Maynard Keynes
question
- broaden the power and influence of the government - moved the government more socialist - 1935-1936--signs of recovery - Roosevelt cut spending and economy began to slump - 1937--back to 1929 level
answer
***The New Deal and Roosevelt
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question
UNDERLINED IN THE POWERPOINT BUT NOT ON THE REVIEW
answer
***
question
widespread social and economic change occurred
answer
The 1920s are sometimes called the "Roaring Twenties" because
question
World War I
answer
The change in Western civilization in the 1920s grew out of
question
- Austrian physician - founded psychoanalysis - Freudian Psychology
answer
Sigmund Freud
question
- Nativism - Anglo Saxon racism - Militant Protestantism
answer
***Reaction to problems
question
- we don't like new people - political radicals were immigrants - 1/2 of white men and 1/3 of white women working in industries (low-paying jobs) were foreign born - Socialism and Anarchism were prevalent in the regions they came from
answer
Nativism
question
- Italian immigrants - arrested May 5, 1920 - stole $16,000 and killed paymaster and guard - When arrested, both were armed, lied to police, and were identified by eyewitnesses - it was the height of the Italian immigration and anarchist violence - Judge was openly prejudicial - convicted and ordered executed mainly of political beliefs - 7 years of appeal - worldwide appeals for mercy - executed in 1927
answer
Sacco and Venzetti
question
- Emergency Immigration Act of 1921--restricted European immigration - Immigration Act of 1924--reduced immigration further - Calvin Coolidge--"America must be kept American" - completely excluded people from East Asia - left open Western Hemisphere countries - People of Latin American descent became the fastest growing ethnic minority
answer
***Immigration
question
Coolidge pursues policies that wanted to reduce immigration in the US
answer
What does the phrase "America must be kept American" mean?
question
- revival of the Klan - wanted 100% Americans - Native born white Protestants - No Blacks, Catholics, Jews, or immigrants
answer
***Anglo Saxon Racism
question
- saw new ideas that the Bible should be studied in the light of modern scholarship as a threat - did not believe that religion should be reconciled with scientific theories of evolution - *William Jennings Bryan--leader of movement*
answer
Militant Protestants
question
- 1921 -- promoting laws banning Darwinism in school - 1925 -- Tennessee outlawed teaching evolution in public schools and colleges - ACLU used science teacher, John Scopes, as a test case Bryan=prosecution Clarence Darrow=defense Bryan--Fundamentalist Darrow--Agnostic Judge--Evangelist - debate became about fundamentalism vs modernism - Judge ruled out scientific testimony - defense called Bryan, an expert witness on biblical interpretation - entrapped statesman in literal-minded interpretations and exposed his ignorance of the bible - ISSUE: had he taught evolution--guilty
answer
***The Scopes Trial
question
science and religion
answer
The 1925 trial of John Scopes reflects the conflict between
question
- Anti-Saloon League - most effective pressure groups - Protestant churches - also ethnic and social prejudices - wartime spirit of sacrifice - need to use grain for food - German American brewers - the cause was now patriotic - 1917--passed - no adequate enforcement - did to curb thirst for alcohol - gave rise to organized crime
answer
***Prohibition
question
...
answer
By 1917, Prohibition had become viewed as
question
it couldn't be enforced
answer
Prohibition failed because
question
A rise in criminal organizations that supplied illegal liquor.
answer
One clear result of Prohibition was
question
- involved in illegal activity - busted on tax evasion
answer
Al Capone
question
- dismissing old fashioned vales of immigrant parents - small-town life--boring and old fashioned - cities--vice, crime, corruption, and foreigners
answer
***Cultural Conflict
question
traditional values and changing lifestyles
answer
During the 1920s, controversies concerning the Scopes trial, national Prohibition, and the behavior of "flappers" were all signs of disagreement over
question
F. Scott Fitzgerald
answer
Who coined the phrase the "Jazz Age?"
question
- one of the greatest American writers of the 20th century - alcoholic - wife was mentally unstable
answer
F. Scott Fitzgerald
question
- African American cultural movement - racial pride and self-reliance - "New Negro" is popularized, implying an advocacy of dignity and a refusal to the Jim Crow laws
answer
The Harlem Renaissance of the 1920s
question
- exalted blackness - black cultural expression - black exclusiveness
answer
Negro Nationalism movement
question
Marcus Garvey
answer
A prominent advocate of African-American self-reliance and migration to Africa was
question
believed blacks would never be treated justly in countries ruled by whites so he urged them to return to Africa
answer
The philosophy of Marcus Garvey?
question
- 4 years after WWI--recession - 1922--economy recovered and grew
answer
***The American Economy
question
boosts productivity by 40% by 1920
answer
Henry Ford
question
installment buying and an unregulated stock market INCREASE SALES WITH - heavy advertisement - installment buying plans
answer
The economic boom and the financial speculation of the 1920s were caused in part by
question
Warren G. Harding
answer
"Return to Normalcy" is associated with which president
question
- promised a return of the nation to "normalcy" - return to "America first" encouraged industrialization and a strong economy independent of foreign influence - he departed from the progressive movement - he had 2 affairs, one which resulted to an illegitimate child - He was a limited man and knew it. He wanted to be loved, not great.
answer
Warren G. Harding
question
- President Harding's friends and political contributors - he rewarded them with financially powerful positions - scandals and corruption eventually pervaded his adminstration - Harding was able to avoid scandal because he probably did not know all that was taking place in his administration
answer
What was the Ohio Gang?
question
took bribes for leasing federal oil lands
answer
The central scandal of the Teapot Dome involved members of Harding's Cabinet who
question
weak-willed and tolerant of corruption among his friends
answer
As president, Warren G. Harding proved to be
question
Polls of historians and scholars have consistently ranked Harding as one of the worst Presidents.
answer
How has history judged Harding?
question
Calvin Coolidge
answer
It was said his political genius was a talent for effectively doing nothing
question
- VP for Harding - became President after Harding suddenly died and collapsed after a stop in California - Conservative - "Keep Cool with Coolidge"--1924 election--won solidly - promoted diversity--appointed Jews to cabinet - worked for women's rights - contributed to the economic boom of the 1920s - refused to use Federal economic power to check the growing boom or help the depressed condition of agriculture and certain industries - his called for isolation in foreign policy - he reverted to a passive stance and deferred to Congress - he believed the success of the country was tied to big business - developed industry at the expense of labor and agriculture - end of government regulation - reduced taxes
answer
Calvin Coolidge
question
the free-enterprise system
answer
"The business of America is business" - President Calvin Coolidge. By making this statement, President Coolidge was expressing his support for
question
- flood of consumer goods now accessible to middle class - had to get rid of idea of plain living and make Americans go on a shopping spree - mass advertising undermine notion of frugality - buying bolsters self esteem - movies, radio, and telephones created a homogeneous culture
answer
What is the Consumer Culture developed during the 1920s?
question
1. Vacuum cleaners 2. Cameras 3. Wrist Watches 4. Washing machines 5. National Magazines 6. Chain Stores 7. Syndicated News 8. Movies - 50 million customers a week 9. Brand Names 10. Radio Programs
answer
List 3 new technologies of the 1920s
question
farmers FARMING - weakest part of the economy - prices low - foreclosures and bankruptcies - many farms got large and more mechanized
answer
Which group of Americans generally failed to experience the economic prosperity of the 1920s?
question
Herbert Hoover
answer
First President born west of the Mississippi
question
ELECTION OF 1928 - Herbert Hoover--Republican - The Republicans were identified with the booming economy of the 1920s - Smith was anti-Catholic and anti-prohibitionist - Hoover won a landslide victory - first President born west of the Mississippi - only Iowan President - Quaker
answer
Herbert Hoover
question
had the economic effect of crippling international trade and deepening the depression - Economists of the era petitioned Hoover to veto - Hoover went along because it was an election year - Economists were right
answer
The sky high Hawley-Smoot Tariff of 1930
question
- A few stock market investors began selling their stock. They predicted that the bull market might end soon, leaving them in debt. - Seeing these few investors sell, others soon followed creating a domino effect. - The sudden selling caused stock prices to fall. - Nervous brokers asked investors to pay their debts, and when they couldn't pay, they were forced to sell, causing stock prices to fall more even more. - bank failures crushed the average American - When they went to withdraw their money, it had been lent out so they lost their savings
answer
The stock market crash of 1929
question
- Tuesday, October 29, 1929 - stock prices plummeted because there were no buyers for the stock offered by desperate sellers. - Millions of dollars were lost that day due to the decrease in stock prices. - beginning of stock market crash - led directly to the Great Depression (also buying on margin(credit))
answer
Black Tuesday
question
the economy would recover on its own
answer
When the Great Depression began in 1929, the most common economic belief was
question
voluntary cooperation by business leaders in restoring the public confidence in the economy.
answer
Hoover's first efforts to control the Depression focused on
question
federal welfare programs to give relief directly to the poor
answer
Methods of fighting the Depression President Herbert Hoover opposed throughout his administration?
question
refusal to provide direct federal aid to the homeless
answer
In the 1930s, shantytowns, often called "Hoovervilles," sprang up across the United States because of President Herbert Hoover's
question
was blamed for the suffering of the poor
answer
During the Great Depression, expressions such as Hoovervilles and Hoover blankets showed that President Hoover
question
failed to provide direct relief for the neediest persons
answer
President Herbert Hoover's response to the Great Depression was often criticized because it
question
*C* - Credit Expansion *R* - Reparations *A* - American industry too dominant Europe too dependent on US *S* - Stock Market Crash *H* - High protective tariffs
answer
Explain C.R.A.S.H.
question
- an ecological and human disaster that took place in the southwest - caused by misuse of land and years of sustained drought - As the land dried up, great clouds of dust and sand carried by the wind covered everything - many moved to the west coast to find jobs - left Arkansas, Texas, Missouri, and Oklahoma to head west - many people migrated to California - didn't find a better life
answer
***Dust Bowl
question
overfarming and severe drought
answer
What were two basic causes of the Dust Bowl during the early 1930s?
question
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT - believed government had a responsibility to help people in need and provide direct relief - governmental involvement in people's lives was a good source for those in need - believed capitalism and laissez faire needed to be reformed HERBERT HOOVER - believed that federal government should not try to fix people's problems - he believed direct relief would destroy people's self-respect - he believed it would create a big government which would violate laissez faire
answer
Compare Hoover and Roosevelt
question
more willing to use government intervention to solve economic problems
answer
Difference between the administration of President Franklin Roosevelt and President Herbert Hoover is that Roosevelt was
question
ELECTION OF 1932 - Democrat--FDR - Republican--Herbert Hoover - Americans believed FDR could get the country out of the depression and put people back to work - FDR appealed to the common man because he was crippled - promised to help the people through the Great Depression by direct governmental involvement
answer
Franklin D. Roosevelt
question
became the eyes and ears for her husband
answer
Eleanor Roosevelt
question
- for the Great Depression - FDR urged people not to be afraid, but instead to think positively. - said that being afraid would not help the country recover, and would only make things worse.
answer
What does the phrase "The only thing we have to fear is fear itself" mean?
question
1. reviving the devastated economy 2. relieving the human misery brought on by the Great Depression 3. alleviating the desperate plight of farmers
answer
Three challenges facing FDR in 1932
question
1. Enforcement of anti-trust laws (restore competition) 2. Suspend anti-trust to allow business to collaborate with government to "manage" the economy 3. Expand welfare programs and infuse government spending
answer
***FDR's Ideas
question
to reassure the American people and help restore faith in democracy
answer
Why did Roosevelt come on the radio with his Fireside Chats?
question
15 proposals were sent to Congress and all 15 were approved
answer
What was significant about Roosevelt's first 100 days in office?
question
declaring a national bank holiday
answer
Roosevelt's first bold action of the Hundred Days was
question
- FDR's second day in office - declared a 4 day banking holiday - to halt hysteria and restore confidence in the financial system Emergency Banking Relief Act - took only 7 hours to pass - permitted sound banks to reopen and provide managers for those still in trouble
answer
Banking Holiday
question
The economy sometimes needs public money to encourage business activity.
answer
Basic idea of President Franklin D Roosevelt's New Deal?
question
providing federal aid to many sectors of the economy
answer
The New Deal tried to solve many problems of the Great Depression by
question
1. Renew democracy 2. Restore confidence in the banking 3. Stimulate economy 4. Put people back to work 5. Restore self-confidence
answer
Five goals of the New Deal
question
- relief--ease suffering of the needy - recovery--begin economic growth - reform--prevent another depression
answer
FDRs 3 Rs?
question
overextended the power of the federal government
answer
The Supreme Court declared some New Deal laws unconstitutional because these laws
question
Refinancing of farms at a lower interest rate
answer
***Farm Credit Administration
question
Refinanced mortgages for those living in cities
answer
***Home Owners Loan Act
question
to provide jobs and experience for unemployed young people
answer
The primary purpose of the Civilian Conservation Corps was
question
- provided federal jobs and wages - 4 million people - highway repairs, lay sewer lines - constructing and improving 100 airports and 4000 schools - created 50000 teaching jobs
answer
***Civil Works Administration
question
- protected farmers from price drops and overproduction - paid farmers (subsidies) - teach farmers methods to prevent Dust Bowl
answer
***Agricultural Adjustment Acts
question
Tennessee River
answer
The major New Deal program that attempted to provide flood control, electric power, and economic development occurred in the valley of the
question
federal intervention to meet regional needs
answer
The creation of the Tennessee Valley Authority is an example of
question
paid farmers to cut back production
answer
***Agricultural Adjustment Administration
question
- extended loans to farmers - kept crops off the market
answer
***Commodity Credit Corporation
question
Securities and Exchange Commission
answer
Which New Deal program was chiefly designed to correct abuses in the stock market?
question
attempted to restore public confidence in financial institutions
answer
The Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation and the Securities and Exchange Commission established during the New Deal, were important because they
question
pensions, unemployment insurance, aid to blind, deaf, disabled, and dependent children - response to critics
answer
The Social Security Act of 1935 provided for
question
1. US government and President too powerful 2. Violated laissez faire 3. Supreme Court declared NIRA and AAA unconstitutional
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Three criticisms of the New Deal
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Father Coughlin and Huey Long
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Strong political challenges to Roosevelt came from extremist critics like
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- A Roman Catholic priest - criticized FDR in a weekly radio program - believed an international conspiracy of bankers existed and FDR influenced them - called for the nationalization of banks and utilities (US gov. controls banks, Socialism)
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Father Coughlin
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made people dependent on the Federal Government - deficit spending--government spends money to stimulate the economy and help people even if it mean US government goes into debt. - welfare state--created a population of Americans who relied on the US government to live
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A major criticism of FDR's programs to combat the Great Depression was that these programs
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1. Stimulated the economy 2. Put people back to work 3. Improved moral and self-confidence of the people 4. US government's role changes and became directly involved in helping people 5. WWII ended the Depression, not FDR's New Deal
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Five successes of the New Deal
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trying to increase the number of justices on the Supreme Court
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Which action by President Franklin D. Roosevelt challenged the principle of checks and balances?
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British economist who argued that for a nation to recovery fully from a depression, the government had to spend money to encourage investment and consumption
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John Maynard Keynes
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- broaden the power and influence of the government - moved the government more socialist - 1935-1936--signs of recovery - Roosevelt cut spending and economy began to slump - 1937--back to 1929 level
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***The New Deal and Roosevelt