11.2 Short Answer Essay

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Effects of industrialization on Living Conditions
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Tenements (several families in one family house), no clean water, no trash service, no fire department, no police
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Effects of industrialization on Working Conditions
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Longer working days (12+ hours) and 6 days a week. No vacation, sick leave, or reimbursement for injuries. Unsafe conditions – dirty, poorly ventilated, faulty equipment. Low wages. Child labor.
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Name some effects of railroads on cities
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New towns grew along railroads such as Flagstaff. Cities became known for particular products that could now be sold nationally. Cities created for housing of railroad workers (i.e. Pullman)
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Were cities separated by ethnicity, race and class?
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Yes. Immigrants lived near each other in very crowded conditions to keep with culture, language, traditions. African Americans still were treated poorly and segregated. Rich people had nicer homes away from poverty.
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Was the Americanization movement successful?
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No. Although immigrants were taught English, history and government as well as cooking, immigrants still banded together to maintain their own language and culture.
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What was the effect of political machines?
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The effects of political machines was that they were greedy and vindictive and also stole money from the taxpayers in the form of graft. In NYC, 65% of funds in the 1860s ended up in the pockets of William M.”Boss Tweed” Tweed and his minions. They increased the bills for construction projects with fraud expenses. Although they initially helped the immigrants and poor, in the end they made things worse.
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How did immigrants respond to political machines?
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Immigrants appreciated when the political machines helped them attain citizenship, housing and jobs. They responded to the precinct captains who were also immigrants who spoke their language. In return, immigrants voted for political bosses.
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How did middle class reformers respond to political machines?
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Some reformers conducted investigations while others wrote articles or political cartoons. Some ran for office. Some created settlement houses. They helped utilities become public not private. They helped make voting private.
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Who was Andrew Carnegie and how did he become so powerful?
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AC was a Scottish immigrant. He bought stock and got rich, leading to his buying into the Steel Industry. AC did vertical integration – buying suppliers (iron mines) as well as transportation (railroads and freighters). He also did horizontal integration – buying out competitors. He had a monopoly in the Steel Industry.
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Who was John D Rockefeller and how did he become so powerful?
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JDR used trust agreements to gain a monopoly in the oil industry. He paid his employees really low and drove his competitors out of business by selling his oil at a lower price than cost. When the only oilman left, he hiked prices.
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What were the economic and political policies of robber barons?
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They believed in social darwinism so they deserved their success and poor people deserved nothing. They wanted no govt regulations. They hated unions. They were against the Sherman Antitrust Act. The government often shut down strikes in order to keep industry going, thus supporting the robber barons.
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Compare and contrast Social Darwinism and Social Gospel.
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Social Gospel preached salvation through service to the poor. For example, many women created settlement houses to help the poor. Social Darwinism said that success and failure in business were governed by natural law and nobody should intervene. That meant that the poor were meant to be poor and the rich were meant to be rich. Thus gospel and darwinism were opposites. That said, Carnegie and Rockefeller both donated large portions of their wealth to the poor and to create universities, etc.
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Explain political programs of the Populists.
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The populists wanted to lift the burden of debt from the farmers and other workers and to give the people a greater voice in govt. They wanted an increase in the money supply that would increase the price of their crops. Also wanted a graduated income tax and federal loan program. They wanted a popular not electoral vote. Single terms for Prez and VP. Secret ballot to end voter fraud. 8 hour workday and restrictions in immigration. They wanted bi-metallism NOT the gold standard.
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Four goals of progressivism
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protect social welfare, promote moral improvement, create economic reform and foster efficiency
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Progressive Programs
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Prohibition , YMCA, Salvation Army, stop child labor, scientific management, banning child labor, reduced workday hours, workers compensation, secret ballots, women’s suffrage, 17th amendment – popular election of senators, primary elections, initiative / referendum / recall

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