Psychology Chapter 10 Study Quiz – Flashcards

question
The ability to empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong is called __________.
answer
Morality
question
To study moral development, Kohlberg ___________.
answer
Collected cross-sectional data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas
question
Five-year-old Tyler believes "bad things are what you get punished for." Tyler is at Kohlberg's ________ level or morality.
answer
Preconventional
question
Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg's ______ level of morality.
answer
Conventional
question
If you follow the traffic laws and rules because you believe they are legitimate and good for public welfare, you are demonstrating the _________ stage of moral development.
answer
Social contract
question
According to Kohlberg, an officer in the military is LEAST likely to obey orders to rape and pillage a village in a vanquished town if he has achieved the _________ orientation of moral reasoning.
answer
Universal ethics
question
Kohlberg's second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society is called the:
answer
Conventional
question
Gilligan's major criticism of Kohlberg's stages of moral development is that they _________.
answer
Emphasized male values over female values
question
This is a person's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response.
answer
Temperament
question
Which of the following is TRUE regarding basic temperament?
answer
It tends to be consistent throughout early childhood and into adulthood.
question
The belief that the adult personality reflects how an individual has met or resolved the challenges and crises that occur in eight stages of development is the definition of _________.
answer
Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
question
What is the crisis of young adults defined by Erikson's psychosocial stages?
answer
Intimacy versus isolation
question
During the ______ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying, or painful and unrewarding. During the ______ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.
answer
Trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inderiority
question
Christie is a toddler who has authoritarian parents. Her parents do not allow her to make any decisions on her own. As a result, Chelsea may have difficulty resolving ______ developmental stage.
answer
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
question
Which of the following children is working on the challenge of initiative vs. guilt in Erikson's psychosocial model of development?
answer
Five year old Brian tried to climb the tree in the backyard, and fell down three times.
question
In Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a sense of self and a role in society is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?
answer
Identity vs. role confusion
question
Robert is an adolescent who is sullen and withdrawn. He doesn't seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.
answer
Identity versus role confusion
question
According to Erikson's theory, the dominant crisis of adolescence concerns _____.
answer
Establishing an identity
question
Erikson's identity crisis refers to _____.
answer
The inner conflict related to serious soul-searching
question
Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of _____.
answer
Intimacy
question
Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others. As a result, she avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the developmental challenge of _____.
answer
Intimacy vs. isolation
question
According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves _____.
answer
Expanding one's concern beyond the immediate family group to the next generation
question
Emily is looking back at the last few decades of her life. She feels deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Emily is likely to be in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
answer
Ego integrity vs. despair
question
The major detrimental difference between individualistic and collectivist cultures is _____.
answer
Which needs and goals are emphasized
question
According to research, after a divorce, children may _____.
answer
Do better without tension and fighting in the home; have a poor self-concept; and experience more social, psychological, and academic difficulties
question
_____ has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful marriages.
answer
Realistic expectations
question
One of the clearest identifiers of abuse potential is _____.
answer
Impulsivity
question
Research shows that depression and poverty are among the consequences suffered by _____.
answer
Teenage mothers
question
. A child who can adapt effectively in the face of threats is demonstrating _____.
answer
Resiliency
question
After retirement, Effie continued her gardening, volunteered for an agency that mentors young businesswomen, and traveled to new locations every summer. Effie exemplifies the _____ theory of aging.
answer
Activity
question
Deliberately choosing to reduce the number of social contacts in favor of familiar people who provide meaningful interactions is an example of _____ theory of aging.
answer
Socioemotional selectivity
question
The greatest challenge for the elderly in the U.S. is
answer
Ageism
question
Ageism ______.
answer
Devalues the elderly
question
Which of the following cultures revere the elderly?
answer
Japan and China; Most Native-American tribes; and African-American
question
Grieving people generally begin with the _____ stage, and end with the _____ stage.
answer
Numbness; resolution
question
Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of Kubler-Ross's stages of dying?
answer
"Thank God, it's you!"
question
Frederico's doctor has recently told him that he has a terminal illness. Frederico is now very terse with and critical of her. He frequently remarks that life is unfair. According to Kubler-Ross, Frederico is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with his impending death.
answer
Anger
question
Ms. Giovanni's test results suggest that she is dying of ovarian cancer. She tells her family that the lab must have mixed up her results with someone else's. According to Kubler-Ross, Ms. Giovanni is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with the suggestion that she is dying.
answer
Denial
question
Some critics of Kubler-Ross's theory of dying claim _____.
answer
Her theory might lead to a stereotype of those who are grieving or dying.
question
The study of death and dying is known as _____.
answer
Thanatology
question
Someone who burns his country's flag just because the law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development; whereas someone who burns his country's flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.
answer
Law and order; social contract
question
Critical factors in adjustment of children after parental divorce include, but are not limited to _____.
answer
Resources and support systems available;involvement with noncustodial parent; and individual child attributes
question
Which of the following is the correct sequence for Kubler-Ross's stage theory of dying?
answer
Denial ---> anger ---> bargaining ---> depression ---> acceptance
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question
The ability to empathize with others and distinguish between right and wrong is called __________.
answer
Morality
question
To study moral development, Kohlberg ___________.
answer
Collected cross-sectional data by asking subjects of various ages to respond to stories that depicted moral dilemmas
question
Five-year-old Tyler believes "bad things are what you get punished for." Tyler is at Kohlberg's ________ level or morality.
answer
Preconventional
question
Calvin would like to wear baggy, torn jeans and a nose ring, but he is concerned that others will disapprove. Calvin is at Kohlberg's ______ level of morality.
answer
Conventional
question
If you follow the traffic laws and rules because you believe they are legitimate and good for public welfare, you are demonstrating the _________ stage of moral development.
answer
Social contract
question
According to Kohlberg, an officer in the military is LEAST likely to obey orders to rape and pillage a village in a vanquished town if he has achieved the _________ orientation of moral reasoning.
answer
Universal ethics
question
Kohlberg's second level of moral development, in which moral judgments are based on compliance with the rules and values of society is called the:
answer
Conventional
question
Gilligan's major criticism of Kohlberg's stages of moral development is that they _________.
answer
Emphasized male values over female values
question
This is a person's innate behavioral style and characteristic emotional response.
answer
Temperament
question
Which of the following is TRUE regarding basic temperament?
answer
It tends to be consistent throughout early childhood and into adulthood.
question
The belief that the adult personality reflects how an individual has met or resolved the challenges and crises that occur in eight stages of development is the definition of _________.
answer
Erikson's psychosocial stages of development
question
What is the crisis of young adults defined by Erikson's psychosocial stages?
answer
Intimacy versus isolation
question
During the ______ stage of psychosocial development, individuals decide whether the world is good and satisfying, or painful and unrewarding. During the ______ stage, individuals develop a sense of competency or insecurity.
answer
Trust vs. mistrust; industry vs. inderiority
question
Christie is a toddler who has authoritarian parents. Her parents do not allow her to make any decisions on her own. As a result, Chelsea may have difficulty resolving ______ developmental stage.
answer
Autonomy versus shame and doubt
question
Which of the following children is working on the challenge of initiative vs. guilt in Erikson's psychosocial model of development?
answer
Five year old Brian tried to climb the tree in the backyard, and fell down three times.
question
In Erikson's stages of psychosocial development, the establishment of a sense of self and a role in society is dependent upon successfully resolving which of the following challenges?
answer
Identity vs. role confusion
question
Robert is an adolescent who is sullen and withdrawn. He doesn't seem to know where he fits in society. As a result, Robert may have difficulty resolving the _____ developmental stage.
answer
Identity versus role confusion
question
According to Erikson's theory, the dominant crisis of adolescence concerns _____.
answer
Establishing an identity
question
Erikson's identity crisis refers to _____.
answer
The inner conflict related to serious soul-searching
question
Resolution of the critical conflict of young adulthood will, according to Erikson, lead to a sense of _____.
answer
Intimacy
question
Rebecca finds it difficult to establish close bonds with others. As a result, she avoids anything other than superficial relationships. According to Erikson, it is likely that Rebecca had difficulty with the developmental challenge of _____.
answer
Intimacy vs. isolation
question
According to Erickson, generativity in middle adulthood involves _____.
answer
Expanding one's concern beyond the immediate family group to the next generation
question
Emily is looking back at the last few decades of her life. She feels deep regret at the opportunities she passed up, knowing she does not have enough time left to start over. Emily is likely to be in Erikson's _____ stage of development.
answer
Ego integrity vs. despair
question
The major detrimental difference between individualistic and collectivist cultures is _____.
answer
Which needs and goals are emphasized
question
According to research, after a divorce, children may _____.
answer
Do better without tension and fighting in the home; have a poor self-concept; and experience more social, psychological, and academic difficulties
question
_____ has consistently been found to be a key factor in successful marriages.
answer
Realistic expectations
question
One of the clearest identifiers of abuse potential is _____.
answer
Impulsivity
question
Research shows that depression and poverty are among the consequences suffered by _____.
answer
Teenage mothers
question
. A child who can adapt effectively in the face of threats is demonstrating _____.
answer
Resiliency
question
After retirement, Effie continued her gardening, volunteered for an agency that mentors young businesswomen, and traveled to new locations every summer. Effie exemplifies the _____ theory of aging.
answer
Activity
question
Deliberately choosing to reduce the number of social contacts in favor of familiar people who provide meaningful interactions is an example of _____ theory of aging.
answer
Socioemotional selectivity
question
The greatest challenge for the elderly in the U.S. is
answer
Ageism
question
Ageism ______.
answer
Devalues the elderly
question
Which of the following cultures revere the elderly?
answer
Japan and China; Most Native-American tribes; and African-American
question
Grieving people generally begin with the _____ stage, and end with the _____ stage.
answer
Numbness; resolution
question
Which of the following is LEAST characteristic of Kubler-Ross's stages of dying?
answer
"Thank God, it's you!"
question
Frederico's doctor has recently told him that he has a terminal illness. Frederico is now very terse with and critical of her. He frequently remarks that life is unfair. According to Kubler-Ross, Frederico is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with his impending death.
answer
Anger
question
Ms. Giovanni's test results suggest that she is dying of ovarian cancer. She tells her family that the lab must have mixed up her results with someone else's. According to Kubler-Ross, Ms. Giovanni is MOST likely to be in the _____ stage of coping with the suggestion that she is dying.
answer
Denial
question
Some critics of Kubler-Ross's theory of dying claim _____.
answer
Her theory might lead to a stereotype of those who are grieving or dying.
question
The study of death and dying is known as _____.
answer
Thanatology
question
Someone who burns his country's flag just because the law says he can is reasoning at the _____ stage of moral development; whereas someone who burns his country's flag because he believes that his country has lost its legitimacy is reasoning at the _____ stage.
answer
Law and order; social contract
question
Critical factors in adjustment of children after parental divorce include, but are not limited to _____.
answer
Resources and support systems available;involvement with noncustodial parent; and individual child attributes
question
Which of the following is the correct sequence for Kubler-Ross's stage theory of dying?
answer
Denial ---> anger ---> bargaining ---> depression ---> acceptance
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