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Psychology Chapter 11&13

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personality
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A persons characteristic patterns of behaving, thinking, and feeling.
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conscious
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Thoughts feelings and sensations or memories of which a person is aware of at any given moment.
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preconscious
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Thoughts feelings etc. that they aren’t conscious aware of at the moment.
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unconscious
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Repressed memories as well as instincts, wishes, and desires that have never been conscious.
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id
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The unconscious system of the personality, which contains life and death instincts and operates on pleasure principle.
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ego
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Freud theory, the rational and logical, largely conscious system of personality. Operates according to the reality principle.
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superego
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The moral system of the personality, consists of the conscious and the ego ideal.
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defense mechanism
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A means used by the ego to defend against anxiety and to maintain self-esteem.
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psychosexual stages
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Stages through which the sexual instincts develop; each stage is defined by an erogenous zone around which conflict arises.
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personal unconscious
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The layer of unconscious that contains all perceptions, memories and experiences accessible to the conscious. (including repressed memories, wishes, and impulses).
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collective unconscious
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The most inaccessible layer of the unconscious, which contains the universal experiences of humankind.
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archetype
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An inherited tendency to respond to universal human situations in particular ways.
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esteem needs
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Motives that drive people to pursue goals such as academic achievement and success in a career.
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self-actualization
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Developing to one’s full potential.
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conditions of worth
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Conditions on which the positive regard of others rest.
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unconditional positive regard
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Unqualified caring and nonjudgmental acceptance of others.
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self-esteem
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A sense of one’s self worth.
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trait
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A personal characteristic that is stable across situation, and is used to describe or explain personality.
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five-factor model
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A model that describes personality using 5 broad dimensions, each of which is composed of a constellation of personality traits. (OCEAN: Openness, conscientiousness,extraversion, agreeableness,neuroticism)
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individualism/collectivism dimension
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A measure a cultures emphasis on either individual achievement or social relationships.
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social-cognitive theory
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The view that personality can be defined as a collection of learned behaviors acquired through social interactions.
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situation-trait debate
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A discussion among theorists about the relative influence of traits and situations on personality.
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reciprocal determinism
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Bandar’s concept of a mutual influential relationship among behavior, cognitive factors, and environment.
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self-efficacy
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The perception a person has of his or her ability perform competently whatever is attempted.
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locus of control
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Rotter’s concept of a cognitive factor that explains how people account for what happens in their lives. Either seeing themselves as primarily in control of their behavior and it’s consequences. Or perceiving what happens to them to be in the hands of fate, luck, or change.
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inventory
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A test that measures personality, including thoughts, feelings, and behaviors.
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projective test
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Personality test in which people respond to inkblots, drawings of ambiguous human situations, or incomplete sentences by projecting their inner thoughts.
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Rorschach Inkblot Method
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Test in which a person is asked to describe 10 inkblots that are shown to them.
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Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
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Projective test of drawings of ambiguous human situations which the test taker is asked to describe. (actual pictures)
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psychotherapy
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Any type of approach that uses psychological rather than biological means to treat psychological disorders
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insight therapies
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Approaches to psychotherapy based on the notion that psychological well-being depends of self-understanding.
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psychoanalysis
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The first psychodynamic therapy, which was developed by Freud and uses free association, dream analysis, and transference.
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Psychodynamic Therapies
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Psychotherapies that attempt to uncover repressed childhood memories, that may be causing the patients current difficulties.
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free association
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A technique used to explore the unconscious by having the patient reveal whatever thoughts, feelings, or images that come to mind.
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transference
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An emotional reaction that occurs during psychoanalysis, in which the patient displays feelings towards the analyst.
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interpersonal therapy (IPT)
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A brief psychotherapy designed to help people with depression better understand and cope with problems relating to their interpersonal relationships. (Unusual or severe response, Interpersonal role disputes, Difficulty adjusting to role transitions, and Deficits in interpersonal skills).
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humanistic therapies
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Assume that people have the abilities and freedom to lead rational lives and make rational choices.
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person-centered therapy
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Humanistic therapy developed by Carl Rogers in which the therapist creates an accepting climate and shows empathy. Freeing the client to talk about their problems.
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nondirective therapy
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Any type of psychotherapy in which the therapist allows the direction of the therapy session to be controlled by the client. Example: (person centered theory).
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Gestalt therapy
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Originated by Fritz Perls, emphasizing on taking responsibility for ones own thoughts, actions, etc. in the present moment.
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directive therapy
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Any type of psychotherapy in the therapist takes an active role in determining the course of therapy sessions. Provides answers and suggestions to the client. Example: (Gestalt therapy)
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relationship therapies
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Therapies that attempt to improve clients interpersonal relationships or create new relationships to support clients efforts to address psychological problems.
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family therapy
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Therapy involving the entire family, with the goal of helping family members reach agreement on changes that will help heal the family unit.
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couple therapy
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Therapy involving intimate partners.
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group therapy
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Therapy in which several clients meet regularly with one therapist to resolve personal problems.
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behavior therapy
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Treatment approach that is based on the idea that abnormal behavior is learned and that applies the principles of operant conditioning, classical conditioning, and observational learning to eliminate inappropriate behaviors and replace them with adaptive responses. Example: (Behavior Modification).
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token economy
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Rewards appropriate behavior with tokens that can be exchanged later for desired goods or privileges.
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time out
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A positive reinforcer when negative or inappropriate behavior is displayed.
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systematic desensitization
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Therapy that is based on classical conditioning and used to treat fears by training clients in deep muscle relaxation and then have them confront a series of graduated series of anxiety producing situations.
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flooding
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Mass exposure to a fear, to become less stressed when confronted by that fear again.
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exposure and response prevention
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Behavior therapy that exposed clients with OCD to stimuli that triggers a response. Clients then must learn to ignore that stimuli.
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aversion therapy
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Behavior therapy in which aversion stimulus is paired with a harmful or socially undesirable behavior until the unit becomes associated with pain or discomfort.
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participant modeling
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Therapy in which an appropriate response to a feared stimulus is modeled in graduated steps and the client attempts to imitate the model step by step, encouraged and supported by the therapist.
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cognitive behavior therapies (CBTs)
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Therapies that assume maladaptive behavior can result from irrational thoughts, beliefs, and ideas.
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rational emotive behavior therapy (REBT)
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A directive form of psychotherapy developed by Albert Ellis and designed to challenge clients’ irrational beliefs about themselves and others.
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Beck’s cognitive therapy (CT)
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A therapy designed by Aaron Beck to help clients stop their cognitive errors as they occur and replace them with more objective thoughts.
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biomedical therapy
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A therapy (drug therapy, electroconclusive therapy, or psychosurgery) that is based on the assumption that psychological disorders are symptoms of underlying problems.
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antipsychotic drugs
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Drugs used to control severe psychotic symptoms. Examples: (delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech and behavior).
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antidepressant drugs
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Drugs used to help fight against a clients depression.
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lithium
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A drug used to treat bipolar disorder, which at proper maintenance dosage reduces both manic and depressive episodes.
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electroconvulsive therapy (ECT)
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Biological therapy in which an electrical current is passed through the right hemisphere of the brain in patients who have suicidal tendencies.
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psychosurgery
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Brain surgery performed to alleviate serious psychological disorders or unbearable chronic pain.
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psychologist
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A mental health professional who possesses a doctoral degree in psychology.
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psychiatrist
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A mental health professional who is a medical doctor.
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culturally sensitive therapy
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Therapy in which knowledge of clients’ cultural backgrounds guides the choice of therapeutic interventions.
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gender-sensitive therapy
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Therapy that takes into account the effects of gender on both the therapist’s and the client’s behavior.