10TH GRADE MID TERM STUDY GUIDE BIOLOGY

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Criteria to be considered living
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Reproduce, maintain homeostatis, respond to stimuli, adapt, move, require energy, grow and develop.
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Biology
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Study of living things
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Two essential elements of a hypothesis
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Testable and Falsifiable
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Nitrogen
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Element found in protein, but not in carbohydrates or lipids
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RNA AND DNA
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Two types of nucleic acid
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5-carbon sugar and phosphate group
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Basic amino acid structure
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Prokaryotic Cells
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Don’t have membrane-bind nucleus and organelles
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Eukaryotic Cells
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Have membrane-bind nucleus and organelles
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Cell Theory
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All living things are made up of cells (basic unit of life)
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Plant cell
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Eukaryotic, has chloroplast, cell wall and large vacuole
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Animal cell
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Eukaryotic
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Role of Golgi Apparatus
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Package and transport proteins out of the cell to the membrane
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Smooth ER
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Detoxify harmful substances
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Diffusion
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Concentration of substances become balanced on both sides of the membrane
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Active transport
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Requires energy
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Passive transport
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Does not require energy
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Three environments cell may be replaced in
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hypertonic, hypotonic and isotonic
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Plant Cell and environment
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Hypotonic- tugor pressure Hypertonic – plasmolysis Isotonic – normal
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Animal Cell and environment
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Cyto

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