Chapter 1-4 APUSH Flashcards Essay

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by the time the eurpoeans arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1490s, most native americans lived in and along what region?
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mesoamerica and the western coast of south america
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what was the foundation for the prosperous native american societies in mexico, peru, and the mississippi river valley?
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the cultivation of maize
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the hohokams, mogollon, anasazi peoples who lived in present day arizona and new mexico around ad 1000?
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employed irrigation to grow four or five crops a year
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what was a characteristic of both the mississippian and pueblo peoples?
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elaborate ceremonial and urban sites
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what pueblo peoples built hundreds of miles of straight roads across the desert in the american southwest to facilitate trade?
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anasazis
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what describes native american peoples east of the mississippi river?
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they had no political organization
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what was a characteristic of the aztec, mayan, and iroquois civilizations?
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reliance on agriculture
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what describes trading relationships among native americans in the period before the eurpoean contact?
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native americans developed expansive trade networks that spanned great distances
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what statement describes the statues of eurpoean monarchs in 1450?
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the authority of the monarchs was often challenged by local nobles
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the social order in europe around 1450 can be described as?
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hierarchical and authoritarian
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typically when an english woman of the fifteenth century married, she?
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owned property jointly with her husband
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on the eve of european colonization of the americans, most western europeans lived in?
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small, relatively isolated rural communities
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merchants from what country made inroads in the arab dominated trade route of the mediterranean in the 12 century?
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italy
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most of the people living in west africa when european trade began in the early 15th century were?
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animists
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what did cortes explore?
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conquered the aztec empire in mexico
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why were the modern day countries of mexico and peru originally spain’s most significant conquests?
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the inca, aztecs, and mayans had great wealth, particularly in gold
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what statement characterizes the legacy of the spanish conquest in the new world in the 16th century?
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the spanish government and missionaries waged a campaign to suppress indigenous cultures
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during most of the sixteenth century, what was the wealthiest nation in europe?
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spain
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how did the spanish conquistador francisco pizarro conquer the incans by 1535?
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the incans were already weakened militarily and divided because of rival claimants to the throne
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by the mid 15oos, spains main goal in north america was to?
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maintain its dominance and power in the region
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what statement describes the significance of the arrival of new world crops including maize and potatoes, in Europe and Asia after the 1500s?
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american crops increased agricultural yield and population growth in the old world
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what was an outcome of elizabath 1s compromise on the church of england in the late 1500s?
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it angered english people who supported radical protestantism
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the main motive for king philip 2s attacks on england in 1588 was to?
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eradicate protestantism in england and holland
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two hundred thousand spaniards from castile migrated to american in the 1500w in order to escape?
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high taxes on agriculture and military service
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what was true of the english outwork textile industry that emerged around 1500?
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landless peasants in small cottages spun and wove wool into cloth
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what group provided the labor for brazil’s profitable plantations in 1620?
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african slaves
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what statement describes the english migrants who initially settled in the jamestown colony in the early 1600s?
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early jamestown settlers expected to profit from gold and indian labor
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what accounted for the uneasy relations that persisted between powhatans people and the jamestown settlers for more than a decade after 1607?
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both groups inability to reach an agreement about who would pay tribute to whom
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the economic livelihood of the virginia colony in the 1700s depended on what products?
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tobacco
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what developments fostered the flow of migrants into the virginia colony between 1617 and 1622?
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the virginia company began to allow individual settlers to own land
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what effect did american tobacco have in england during the early colonial period?
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the english developed a huge appetite for tobacco, which stimulated the english economy and bolstered England’s treasury
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in what ways did the plantation colonies of barbados differ from those in the chesapeake in the 17th century?
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the chesapeake adopted slavery gradually and barbados did so quickly
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what statements describes africans in virginia after the 1660s?
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africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition
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in contrast to the spanish missionaries of the 16th century, the 17th century french jesuits?
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tried to understand the indians values and worldview
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john winthorp’s phrase city upon a hill referred to what colony?
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massachusetts bay
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for which reason was roger williams banished from massachuessets bay in 1636?
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he questioned the english seizure of native people’s lands
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anne hutchinson was banished from massachusetts bay for?
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questioning the idea that good works led to salvation
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what caused the puritans’ errand into the wilderness to become permanent?
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the failure of the english revolution
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the worldview of devout puritans, such as cotton mather, was based on what?
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the notion that supernatural forces caused unusual events
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why did the largest landholdings in 17th century New England towns usually belong to wealthier families?
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Men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land grants from their towns
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how did the puritans justify their invasion of the native americans’ land in the 17th century?
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the puritans interpreted epidemics that devastated native american populations as a favorable sign from god
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what statement is true of metacom’s war (king philip’s war), which took place in 1675-1676?
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the war was a last ditch attempt to save indian lands and culture in new england
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why was william berkely significant in the chesapeake region in the 17th century?
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his political favoritism during his governorship aroused great resentment in virginia
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what was a consequence of bacon’s rebellion of the 1670s?
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slavery began to replace indentured servitude
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what describes the character of britain’s empire in america before 1660?
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the british ruled their american colonies in haphazard
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what was true of the restoration colonies of new york, pennsylvania, new jersey, and the carolinas in the 1660s?
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they were created by charles 2 as he expanded english power in america
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what describes the dominant approach to settlement in North carolina in its early years?
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the proprietors planned to set up a manorial system, but this plan failed
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what statements is true of the quaker religion in the 1660s?
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it taught that god imbued all men and women with an inner light
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the navigation acts implemented in the american colonies by britain in the mid 17th century were originally intended to?
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cut the dutch and french out of the colonial trade
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what was an outcome of the navigation acts in the mid 17th century?
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colonists required to export their sugar and tobacco only to england
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what describes the change in english economic philosophy toward the colonies beginning in the 1650s?
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no longer content with a favorable balance of trade with european countries, the english government controlled trade with the colonies
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what describes the significant of the glorious revolution of 1688 in england and america?
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the change represented a major step toward democracy in both england and the north american colonies
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when the early 18th century anglo french was temporarily ended with the treaty of utrecht in 1713, britain had?
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won major territorial and commercial gains, including newfoundland, acadia, and the hudson bay region as well as access to the western indian trade
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which agricultural product served as the foundation for the south atlantic system in the 18th century?
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sugar
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what area imported the smallest number of slaves in the early 18th century?
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north america
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what characterizes the impact of the slave trade on africa?
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the slave trade hardened african class divisions and changed gender relations
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what characterizes adrian states’ involvement in the atlantic slave trade?
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the asante kinds used the profits of slave trading to expand their political dominion
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what characterizes life for slaves in the west indies in the 1700s?
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because the price of sales was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves
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what method did chesapeake planters use in the early 18th century to prevent slave revolts?
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they bought slaves of different ethnic backgrounds to limit their ability to organize
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what explains why chesapeake planters treated their slaves less harshly that west indian farmers planters in the 18th century?
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profits on sugar were considerably higher than those made through tobacco production
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the british colonists in 18th century north america enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy over their royal governors mainly due to?
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their control over governors salaries
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what reason led to the war break out between england and spain in the late 1730s?
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spain was angry over the english settlement of georgia
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how did farmwives throughout the colonies in the 18th century contribute to their families?
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wives acted as helpmates to their husbands and performed both domestic and agricultural tasks
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in the 18th century new england, the notion that parents would pay grown children for their past labors in exchange for the privilege of choosing the children’s spouses was known as?
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the marriage portion
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which of the following was an outcome of new england families efforts to maintain the freeholder ideal in the late 18th century?
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farmers abandoned traditional grain crops and adopted livestock agriculture instead
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what statements describe the role of money and economic exchange in 18th century rural new england?
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generally, no money was exchanged between relatives and neighbors, but accounts of debts were maintained and settled every few years by cash transfers
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the most numerous voluntary(nonslave) emigrants to british north america in the 18th century coma from what group?
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scots-irish
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who created the foundation for enlightenment thinking?
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nicolas copernicus
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the english philosopher john locke believed what idea?
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people had natural rights such as life, liberty, and property
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puritan minister cotton mather’s response to which of the following 18th century crises demonstrated that enlightenments ideas had begun to influence him?
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the boston smallpox epidemic
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influenced by enlightenment science, what religious movements believed that god had created the world but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature?
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deism
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what made george whitefield such a successful evangelical preacher in new england in the 1740s?
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a reputation for being almost angelical in appearance
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what religious denominations successfully converted many slaves in the mid 18th century southern colonies?
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baptists
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what 18th century movements posed a significant challenge to traditional assumptions about race, gender, and class in american society?
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the great awakening
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how did the british gov respond to hostilities in america in 1754?
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william pitt and lord halifax persuaded prime minister pelham to start a war in america against the french
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what made the brush authorities wary of declaring war against the french in north america in 1754?
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they believed the american colonists were incapable of cooperation in their own defense
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the 1754 albany congress was a significant event because it demonstrated that?
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neither the colonists nor the british found the other’s plan acceptable
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what was a provision of the treaty of paris of 1763?
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france lost all of her north american territory east of mississippi river
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what development was an outcome of the 18th century consumer revolution?
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the colonies became more dependent on overseas credits and markets
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pontiac’s uprising in detroit in 1763 was a direct cause of what event?
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the royal proclamation of 1763

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