Chapter 1-4 APUSH Flashcards

question
by the time the eurpoeans arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1490s, most native americans lived in and along what region?
answer
mesoamerica and the western coast of south america
question
what was the foundation for the prosperous native american societies in mexico, peru, and the mississippi river valley?
answer
the cultivation of maize
question
the hohokams, mogollon, anasazi peoples who lived in present day arizona and new mexico around ad 1000?
answer
employed irrigation to grow four or five crops a year
question
what was a characteristic of both the mississippian and pueblo peoples?
answer
elaborate ceremonial and urban sites
question
what pueblo peoples built hundreds of miles of straight roads across the desert in the american southwest to facilitate trade?
answer
anasazis
question
what describes native american peoples east of the mississippi river?
answer
they had no political organization
question
what was a characteristic of the aztec, mayan, and iroquois civilizations?
answer
reliance on agriculture
question
what describes trading relationships among native americans in the period before the eurpoean contact?
answer
native americans developed expansive trade networks that spanned great distances
question
what statement describes the statues of eurpoean monarchs in 1450?
answer
the authority of the monarchs was often challenged by local nobles
question
the social order in europe around 1450 can be described as?
answer
hierarchical and authoritarian
question
typically when an english woman of the fifteenth century married, she?
answer
owned property jointly with her husband
question
on the eve of european colonization of the americans, most western europeans lived in?
answer
small, relatively isolated rural communities
question
merchants from what country made inroads in the arab dominated trade route of the mediterranean in the 12 century?
answer
italy
question
most of the people living in west africa when european trade began in the early 15th century were?
answer
animists
question
what did cortes explore?
answer
conquered the aztec empire in mexico
question
why were the modern day countries of mexico and peru originally spain's most significant conquests?
answer
the inca, aztecs, and mayans had great wealth, particularly in gold
question
what statement characterizes the legacy of the spanish conquest in the new world in the 16th century?
answer
the spanish government and missionaries waged a campaign to suppress indigenous cultures
question
during most of the sixteenth century, what was the wealthiest nation in europe?
answer
spain
question
how did the spanish conquistador francisco pizarro conquer the incans by 1535?
answer
the incans were already weakened militarily and divided because of rival claimants to the throne
question
by the mid 15oos, spains main goal in north america was to?
answer
maintain its dominance and power in the region
question
what statement describes the significance of the arrival of new world crops including maize and potatoes, in Europe and Asia after the 1500s?
answer
american crops increased agricultural yield and population growth in the old world
question
what was an outcome of elizabath 1s compromise on the church of england in the late 1500s?
answer
it angered english people who supported radical protestantism
question
the main motive for king philip 2s attacks on england in 1588 was to?
answer
eradicate protestantism in england and holland
question
two hundred thousand spaniards from castile migrated to american in the 1500w in order to escape?
answer
high taxes on agriculture and military service
question
what was true of the english outwork textile industry that emerged around 1500?
answer
landless peasants in small cottages spun and wove wool into cloth
question
what group provided the labor for brazil's profitable plantations in 1620?
answer
african slaves
question
what statement describes the english migrants who initially settled in the jamestown colony in the early 1600s?
answer
early jamestown settlers expected to profit from gold and indian labor
question
what accounted for the uneasy relations that persisted between powhatans people and the jamestown settlers for more than a decade after 1607?
answer
both groups inability to reach an agreement about who would pay tribute to whom
question
the economic livelihood of the virginia colony in the 1700s depended on what products?
answer
tobacco
question
what developments fostered the flow of migrants into the virginia colony between 1617 and 1622?
answer
the virginia company began to allow individual settlers to own land
question
what effect did american tobacco have in england during the early colonial period?
answer
the english developed a huge appetite for tobacco, which stimulated the english economy and bolstered England's treasury
question
in what ways did the plantation colonies of barbados differ from those in the chesapeake in the 17th century?
answer
the chesapeake adopted slavery gradually and barbados did so quickly
question
what statements describes africans in virginia after the 1660s?
answer
africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition
question
in contrast to the spanish missionaries of the 16th century, the 17th century french jesuits?
answer
tried to understand the indians values and worldview
question
john winthorp's phrase city upon a hill referred to what colony?
answer
massachusetts bay
question
for which reason was roger williams banished from massachuessets bay in 1636?
answer
he questioned the english seizure of native people's lands
question
anne hutchinson was banished from massachusetts bay for?
answer
questioning the idea that good works led to salvation
question
what caused the puritans' errand into the wilderness to become permanent?
answer
the failure of the english revolution
question
the worldview of devout puritans, such as cotton mather, was based on what?
answer
the notion that supernatural forces caused unusual events
question
why did the largest landholdings in 17th century New England towns usually belong to wealthier families?
answer
Men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land grants from their towns
question
how did the puritans justify their invasion of the native americans' land in the 17th century?
answer
the puritans interpreted epidemics that devastated native american populations as a favorable sign from god
question
what statement is true of metacom's war (king philip's war), which took place in 1675-1676?
answer
the war was a last ditch attempt to save indian lands and culture in new england
question
why was william berkely significant in the chesapeake region in the 17th century?
answer
his political favoritism during his governorship aroused great resentment in virginia
question
what was a consequence of bacon's rebellion of the 1670s?
answer
slavery began to replace indentured servitude
question
what describes the character of britain's empire in america before 1660?
answer
the british ruled their american colonies in haphazard
question
what was true of the restoration colonies of new york, pennsylvania, new jersey, and the carolinas in the 1660s?
answer
they were created by charles 2 as he expanded english power in america
question
what describes the dominant approach to settlement in North carolina in its early years?
answer
the proprietors planned to set up a manorial system, but this plan failed
question
what statements is true of the quaker religion in the 1660s?
answer
it taught that god imbued all men and women with an inner light
question
the navigation acts implemented in the american colonies by britain in the mid 17th century were originally intended to?
answer
cut the dutch and french out of the colonial trade
question
what was an outcome of the navigation acts in the mid 17th century?
answer
colonists required to export their sugar and tobacco only to england
question
what describes the change in english economic philosophy toward the colonies beginning in the 1650s?
answer
no longer content with a favorable balance of trade with european countries, the english government controlled trade with the colonies
question
what describes the significant of the glorious revolution of 1688 in england and america?
answer
the change represented a major step toward democracy in both england and the north american colonies
question
when the early 18th century anglo french was temporarily ended with the treaty of utrecht in 1713, britain had?
answer
won major territorial and commercial gains, including newfoundland, acadia, and the hudson bay region as well as access to the western indian trade
question
which agricultural product served as the foundation for the south atlantic system in the 18th century?
answer
sugar
question
what area imported the smallest number of slaves in the early 18th century?
answer
north america
question
what characterizes the impact of the slave trade on africa?
answer
the slave trade hardened african class divisions and changed gender relations
question
what characterizes adrian states' involvement in the atlantic slave trade?
answer
the asante kinds used the profits of slave trading to expand their political dominion
question
what characterizes life for slaves in the west indies in the 1700s?
answer
because the price of sales was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves
question
what method did chesapeake planters use in the early 18th century to prevent slave revolts?
answer
they bought slaves of different ethnic backgrounds to limit their ability to organize
question
what explains why chesapeake planters treated their slaves less harshly that west indian farmers planters in the 18th century?
answer
profits on sugar were considerably higher than those made through tobacco production
question
the british colonists in 18th century north america enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy over their royal governors mainly due to?
answer
their control over governors salaries
question
what reason led to the war break out between england and spain in the late 1730s?
answer
spain was angry over the english settlement of georgia
question
how did farmwives throughout the colonies in the 18th century contribute to their families?
answer
wives acted as helpmates to their husbands and performed both domestic and agricultural tasks
question
in the 18th century new england, the notion that parents would pay grown children for their past labors in exchange for the privilege of choosing the children's spouses was known as?
answer
the marriage portion
question
which of the following was an outcome of new england families efforts to maintain the freeholder ideal in the late 18th century?
answer
farmers abandoned traditional grain crops and adopted livestock agriculture instead
question
what statements describe the role of money and economic exchange in 18th century rural new england?
answer
generally, no money was exchanged between relatives and neighbors, but accounts of debts were maintained and settled every few years by cash transfers
question
the most numerous voluntary(nonslave) emigrants to british north america in the 18th century coma from what group?
answer
scots-irish
question
who created the foundation for enlightenment thinking?
answer
nicolas copernicus
question
the english philosopher john locke believed what idea?
answer
people had natural rights such as life, liberty, and property
question
puritan minister cotton mather's response to which of the following 18th century crises demonstrated that enlightenments ideas had begun to influence him?
answer
the boston smallpox epidemic
question
influenced by enlightenment science, what religious movements believed that god had created the world but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature?
answer
deism
question
what made george whitefield such a successful evangelical preacher in new england in the 1740s?
answer
a reputation for being almost angelical in appearance
question
what religious denominations successfully converted many slaves in the mid 18th century southern colonies?
answer
baptists
question
what 18th century movements posed a significant challenge to traditional assumptions about race, gender, and class in american society?
answer
the great awakening
question
how did the british gov respond to hostilities in america in 1754?
answer
william pitt and lord halifax persuaded prime minister pelham to start a war in america against the french
question
what made the brush authorities wary of declaring war against the french in north america in 1754?
answer
they believed the american colonists were incapable of cooperation in their own defense
question
the 1754 albany congress was a significant event because it demonstrated that?
answer
neither the colonists nor the british found the other's plan acceptable
question
what was a provision of the treaty of paris of 1763?
answer
france lost all of her north american territory east of mississippi river
question
what development was an outcome of the 18th century consumer revolution?
answer
the colonies became more dependent on overseas credits and markets
question
pontiac's uprising in detroit in 1763 was a direct cause of what event?
answer
the royal proclamation of 1763
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question
by the time the eurpoeans arrived in the western hemisphere in the 1490s, most native americans lived in and along what region?
answer
mesoamerica and the western coast of south america
question
what was the foundation for the prosperous native american societies in mexico, peru, and the mississippi river valley?
answer
the cultivation of maize
question
the hohokams, mogollon, anasazi peoples who lived in present day arizona and new mexico around ad 1000?
answer
employed irrigation to grow four or five crops a year
question
what was a characteristic of both the mississippian and pueblo peoples?
answer
elaborate ceremonial and urban sites
question
what pueblo peoples built hundreds of miles of straight roads across the desert in the american southwest to facilitate trade?
answer
anasazis
question
what describes native american peoples east of the mississippi river?
answer
they had no political organization
question
what was a characteristic of the aztec, mayan, and iroquois civilizations?
answer
reliance on agriculture
question
what describes trading relationships among native americans in the period before the eurpoean contact?
answer
native americans developed expansive trade networks that spanned great distances
question
what statement describes the statues of eurpoean monarchs in 1450?
answer
the authority of the monarchs was often challenged by local nobles
question
the social order in europe around 1450 can be described as?
answer
hierarchical and authoritarian
question
typically when an english woman of the fifteenth century married, she?
answer
owned property jointly with her husband
question
on the eve of european colonization of the americans, most western europeans lived in?
answer
small, relatively isolated rural communities
question
merchants from what country made inroads in the arab dominated trade route of the mediterranean in the 12 century?
answer
italy
question
most of the people living in west africa when european trade began in the early 15th century were?
answer
animists
question
what did cortes explore?
answer
conquered the aztec empire in mexico
question
why were the modern day countries of mexico and peru originally spain's most significant conquests?
answer
the inca, aztecs, and mayans had great wealth, particularly in gold
question
what statement characterizes the legacy of the spanish conquest in the new world in the 16th century?
answer
the spanish government and missionaries waged a campaign to suppress indigenous cultures
question
during most of the sixteenth century, what was the wealthiest nation in europe?
answer
spain
question
how did the spanish conquistador francisco pizarro conquer the incans by 1535?
answer
the incans were already weakened militarily and divided because of rival claimants to the throne
question
by the mid 15oos, spains main goal in north america was to?
answer
maintain its dominance and power in the region
question
what statement describes the significance of the arrival of new world crops including maize and potatoes, in Europe and Asia after the 1500s?
answer
american crops increased agricultural yield and population growth in the old world
question
what was an outcome of elizabath 1s compromise on the church of england in the late 1500s?
answer
it angered english people who supported radical protestantism
question
the main motive for king philip 2s attacks on england in 1588 was to?
answer
eradicate protestantism in england and holland
question
two hundred thousand spaniards from castile migrated to american in the 1500w in order to escape?
answer
high taxes on agriculture and military service
question
what was true of the english outwork textile industry that emerged around 1500?
answer
landless peasants in small cottages spun and wove wool into cloth
question
what group provided the labor for brazil's profitable plantations in 1620?
answer
african slaves
question
what statement describes the english migrants who initially settled in the jamestown colony in the early 1600s?
answer
early jamestown settlers expected to profit from gold and indian labor
question
what accounted for the uneasy relations that persisted between powhatans people and the jamestown settlers for more than a decade after 1607?
answer
both groups inability to reach an agreement about who would pay tribute to whom
question
the economic livelihood of the virginia colony in the 1700s depended on what products?
answer
tobacco
question
what developments fostered the flow of migrants into the virginia colony between 1617 and 1622?
answer
the virginia company began to allow individual settlers to own land
question
what effect did american tobacco have in england during the early colonial period?
answer
the english developed a huge appetite for tobacco, which stimulated the english economy and bolstered England's treasury
question
in what ways did the plantation colonies of barbados differ from those in the chesapeake in the 17th century?
answer
the chesapeake adopted slavery gradually and barbados did so quickly
question
what statements describes africans in virginia after the 1660s?
answer
africans found themselves more entrenched in slavery as a permanent condition
question
in contrast to the spanish missionaries of the 16th century, the 17th century french jesuits?
answer
tried to understand the indians values and worldview
question
john winthorp's phrase city upon a hill referred to what colony?
answer
massachusetts bay
question
for which reason was roger williams banished from massachuessets bay in 1636?
answer
he questioned the english seizure of native people's lands
question
anne hutchinson was banished from massachusetts bay for?
answer
questioning the idea that good works led to salvation
question
what caused the puritans' errand into the wilderness to become permanent?
answer
the failure of the english revolution
question
the worldview of devout puritans, such as cotton mather, was based on what?
answer
the notion that supernatural forces caused unusual events
question
why did the largest landholdings in 17th century New England towns usually belong to wealthier families?
answer
Men of higher social status tended to receive the largest land grants from their towns
question
how did the puritans justify their invasion of the native americans' land in the 17th century?
answer
the puritans interpreted epidemics that devastated native american populations as a favorable sign from god
question
what statement is true of metacom's war (king philip's war), which took place in 1675-1676?
answer
the war was a last ditch attempt to save indian lands and culture in new england
question
why was william berkely significant in the chesapeake region in the 17th century?
answer
his political favoritism during his governorship aroused great resentment in virginia
question
what was a consequence of bacon's rebellion of the 1670s?
answer
slavery began to replace indentured servitude
question
what describes the character of britain's empire in america before 1660?
answer
the british ruled their american colonies in haphazard
question
what was true of the restoration colonies of new york, pennsylvania, new jersey, and the carolinas in the 1660s?
answer
they were created by charles 2 as he expanded english power in america
question
what describes the dominant approach to settlement in North carolina in its early years?
answer
the proprietors planned to set up a manorial system, but this plan failed
question
what statements is true of the quaker religion in the 1660s?
answer
it taught that god imbued all men and women with an inner light
question
the navigation acts implemented in the american colonies by britain in the mid 17th century were originally intended to?
answer
cut the dutch and french out of the colonial trade
question
what was an outcome of the navigation acts in the mid 17th century?
answer
colonists required to export their sugar and tobacco only to england
question
what describes the change in english economic philosophy toward the colonies beginning in the 1650s?
answer
no longer content with a favorable balance of trade with european countries, the english government controlled trade with the colonies
question
what describes the significant of the glorious revolution of 1688 in england and america?
answer
the change represented a major step toward democracy in both england and the north american colonies
question
when the early 18th century anglo french was temporarily ended with the treaty of utrecht in 1713, britain had?
answer
won major territorial and commercial gains, including newfoundland, acadia, and the hudson bay region as well as access to the western indian trade
question
which agricultural product served as the foundation for the south atlantic system in the 18th century?
answer
sugar
question
what area imported the smallest number of slaves in the early 18th century?
answer
north america
question
what characterizes the impact of the slave trade on africa?
answer
the slave trade hardened african class divisions and changed gender relations
question
what characterizes adrian states' involvement in the atlantic slave trade?
answer
the asante kinds used the profits of slave trading to expand their political dominion
question
what characterizes life for slaves in the west indies in the 1700s?
answer
because the price of sales was low and the price of sugar was high, slave owners worked their slaves to death and then replaced them with new slaves
question
what method did chesapeake planters use in the early 18th century to prevent slave revolts?
answer
they bought slaves of different ethnic backgrounds to limit their ability to organize
question
what explains why chesapeake planters treated their slaves less harshly that west indian farmers planters in the 18th century?
answer
profits on sugar were considerably higher than those made through tobacco production
question
the british colonists in 18th century north america enjoyed a significant degree of autonomy over their royal governors mainly due to?
answer
their control over governors salaries
question
what reason led to the war break out between england and spain in the late 1730s?
answer
spain was angry over the english settlement of georgia
question
how did farmwives throughout the colonies in the 18th century contribute to their families?
answer
wives acted as helpmates to their husbands and performed both domestic and agricultural tasks
question
in the 18th century new england, the notion that parents would pay grown children for their past labors in exchange for the privilege of choosing the children's spouses was known as?
answer
the marriage portion
question
which of the following was an outcome of new england families efforts to maintain the freeholder ideal in the late 18th century?
answer
farmers abandoned traditional grain crops and adopted livestock agriculture instead
question
what statements describe the role of money and economic exchange in 18th century rural new england?
answer
generally, no money was exchanged between relatives and neighbors, but accounts of debts were maintained and settled every few years by cash transfers
question
the most numerous voluntary(nonslave) emigrants to british north america in the 18th century coma from what group?
answer
scots-irish
question
who created the foundation for enlightenment thinking?
answer
nicolas copernicus
question
the english philosopher john locke believed what idea?
answer
people had natural rights such as life, liberty, and property
question
puritan minister cotton mather's response to which of the following 18th century crises demonstrated that enlightenments ideas had begun to influence him?
answer
the boston smallpox epidemic
question
influenced by enlightenment science, what religious movements believed that god had created the world but allowed it to operate in accordance with the laws of nature?
answer
deism
question
what made george whitefield such a successful evangelical preacher in new england in the 1740s?
answer
a reputation for being almost angelical in appearance
question
what religious denominations successfully converted many slaves in the mid 18th century southern colonies?
answer
baptists
question
what 18th century movements posed a significant challenge to traditional assumptions about race, gender, and class in american society?
answer
the great awakening
question
how did the british gov respond to hostilities in america in 1754?
answer
william pitt and lord halifax persuaded prime minister pelham to start a war in america against the french
question
what made the brush authorities wary of declaring war against the french in north america in 1754?
answer
they believed the american colonists were incapable of cooperation in their own defense
question
the 1754 albany congress was a significant event because it demonstrated that?
answer
neither the colonists nor the british found the other's plan acceptable
question
what was a provision of the treaty of paris of 1763?
answer
france lost all of her north american territory east of mississippi river
question
what development was an outcome of the 18th century consumer revolution?
answer
the colonies became more dependent on overseas credits and markets
question
pontiac's uprising in detroit in 1763 was a direct cause of what event?
answer
the royal proclamation of 1763