1.00 – World History

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Which emperor built the landmark church of Hagia Sophia in Constantinople?
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Justinian
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What discovery had a great impact on economic activity in the Islamic Empire?
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Chinese Paper making
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What remained strongly organized and grew more powerful as the Western Roman Empire fell?
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The Roman Catholic Church
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Which Byzantine Empire is famous for codifying Roman laws?
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Justinian
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Which of the following is evidence that France viewed the Muslim Conquest as a threat?
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The Battle of the Poitiers
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What leader was victorious in the fall of the Byzantine Empire?
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Mehmet II
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What do the three Abrahamic faiths – Christianity, Judaism, and Islam – have in common?
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There is only one God
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What conclusion can be made from the existence of geometric mosaics and arcs present in Spain.
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At one point, Spain was part of the Islamic world.
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What is Al-Azhar?
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An Islamic center of learning in Cairo, Egypt
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How did European leaders respond to Islamic Expansion in the 700’s CE?
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They felt threatened by it and sought to stop it.
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Why was Constantinople called “new rome”?
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Constantine the great built the city to resemble Rome, the center of the Western Roman Empire.
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What are the five pillars of Islam?
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Charity Fasting Faith Prayer Pilgrimage to Mecca
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Which Byzantine city was a wealthy center of trade that maintained the commercial links between Europe and Asia?
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Constantinople
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How did the Iconoclast Controversy affect the Byzantine Empire?
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It heightened public disagreement with the church
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Justinian is considered to be the last Roman Emperor to speak Latin as a first language. What does this fact imply about the changes in the Roman Empire at that time?
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The Western Empire had lost most of its political, religious, and economic power.
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Which belief is shared by Jews, Christians, and Muslims?
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One day a week is devoted to worship and prayer
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What best describes the internal political turmoil that contributed to the decline of the Byzantine Empire?
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A group of wealthy landowners attempted to control the empire by gaining control of the military
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What best describes the architectural style of the Islamic Golden Age?
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Ornate and patterned
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What is the Holy Text of Islam?
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The Qur’an
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How did most citizens of the Byzantine Empire relate to the Roman Empire?
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They saw themselves as part of the Roman Empire
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What is true about Muslims attitude towards science during the Islamic Golden Age?
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Muslims embraced scientific learning and innovation
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What role did Venice, Italy, play in the decline of the Byzantine Empire.
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They gained control of many Byzantine trading routes
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The Taj Mahal, built by Mughai emperor, is an example of how architecture in India was inspired by…
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Islamic Influence in the region
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Use the pyramid diagram of the social classes in feudal Japan to answer the following question: Social-class pyramid for feudal Japan. The pyramid shows the emperor at the top, the warrior classes below him, the peasants below these, and the artisans and merchants at the bottom How were the ranks in feudal Europe unlike the ranks in the Japanese pyramid?
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In Europe, merchants ranked above peasants
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Which leader in the Crusades is revered for his acts of compassion?
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Saladin
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What is one way the medieval daimyo tried to improve their realms, despite frequent wars?
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Encouraging the growth of peasant crafts
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What did King Richard I of England achieve in the Crusades?
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He made a truce concerning Jerusalem
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Which of the following was a direct result of the signing of the Magna Carta?
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The power of monarchy was reduced
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How did the Capetian kings strengthen French national identity during the 11th to 14th centuries?
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They gradually unified the central government located in Paris
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The Bafuku style of government was controlled by
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military warlords
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Which of the following medieval developments laid the foundation for a modern capitalist economy Europe: I. the rise of guilds II. the rise of a money system III. the increase in job specialization IV. the expansion of trade
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I, II, III, and IV
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Who was the author of Divine Comedy, a medieval work of literature?
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Dante Aligheri
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Why were many medieval monasteries wealthy?
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They received gifts by people seeking salvation
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The following map shows the Crusades from 1095 A.D. (CE) through 1204 A.D (CE). Use the map to answer the following question: Map of the First through Fourth Crusades, 1095 CE – 1204 CE. The map shows Europe and North Africa bordering the Mediterranean Sea. Islamic areas are shaded brown; Christian areas are shaded green. Lines of different colors mark the routes of the four Crusades. The first and second Crusades follow land routes from northern and central France through Italy, and also from Germany through southeastern Europe along the Danube River. The third crusade follows a sea path from England around Spain to southern France, and from central France to southern France, and then to the Holy Land. The route from Regensburg in modern Germany to Constantinople was followed during several Crusades. What geographical factor accounts for the popularity of this particular route?
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The route followed a large and major river
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Use the excerpt below from the Magna Carta to answer the following question: 7. A widow, after the death of her husband, shall forthwith and without difficulty have her marriage portion and inheritance; nor shall she give anything for her dower, or for her marriage portion, or for the inheritance which her husband and she held on the day of the death of that husband; and she may remain in the house of her husband for forty days after his death, within which time her dower shall be assigned to her.—Public Domain What does this excerpt from the Magna Carta indicate about the status of women in medieval English society?
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Women often risked losing their husband’s property if he were to die
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How did King Alfred of England (r.871—899) contribute to the creation of a national identity in England?
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He unified small English kingdoms against the Danes.
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What kind of architectural style features carved gargoyles?
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Gothic
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Which of the following comparisons of feudal Japanese samurai and European knights is true?
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Most of the Samurai were literate, most of the kings were not
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Why was Japan isolated from other nations for long periods of its history?
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It is a group of islands located far from mainland Asia
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Which ruler united the feudal kingdoms of Germany under his reign
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Otto I
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The map below shows the Christian, or Crusader, states at the start of the Crusades around 1100 CE. Use the map to answer the following question: Map of the Crusader states in the Holy Land during the time of the Crusades. The Crusader states stretch from southern Anatolia to the Sinai along the Mediterranean coast. There are five main states identified. From North to South these are: the Armenian Kingdom, the County of Edessa, the County of Tripoli, the Principality of Antioch, and the Kingdom of Jerusalem. Bordering the states to the East is the large Seljuk Empire. What does the map suggest about the Crusaders in the Holy Land circa 1100 CE?
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The Crusaders had difficulty gaining control of interior lands
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What Chinese influence can most strongly be seen in Japanese culture?
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Writing system
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Which of the following is not true of the Vikings?
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They brought their pagan beliefs to Europe, re-popularizing polytheism.
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The processes of urbanization, specialization, and trade in medieval Europe led to
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The growth of the middle class in urban centers
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Which of the following was not an area of disagreement between the medieval church and the secular powers?
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Whether popes could excommunicate nobles
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In which way did ancient Rome influence and unify medieval Europe?
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Rome continued as the center of the church
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Use the map below of Japan’s physical and political features to answer the following question: Map of physical features of Japan, showing significant cities, bodies of water, and peaks. The four islands of Japan are shown (Kyushu, Shikoku, Honshu, and Hakkaido), with the Pacific Ocean to the east, the Sea of Japan to the west, and the mainland of Russia, China, and South Korea further to the west. Referring to the map, which of the following explains why Japan was often isolated from the influence of its neighbors?
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It is a group of Islands located far from mainland Asia
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Which best describes the purpose of the doctrines introduced by Pope Gregory VII (elected 1073)?
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To increase the power of the catholic church
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The image below shows St. Benedict presenting his Rule, or set of guidelines for monastic life, to the monks of his order. Use the image to answer the following question: Painting of St. Benedict presenting his Rule to the monks of his order. The painting shows St. Benedict sitting on a regal chair and wearing a long robe. As he hands the Rule to the monks with his left hand, he holds up one finger on his right hand as if he is directing the monks. Three monks dressed in similar robes huddle together as they take the Rule from St. Benedict. What does the appearance and behavior of the figures in the image suggest about the purpose of Benedict’s Rule?
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The rule gave monasteries order and discipline
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Who was the first king to unite the Franks under one rule?
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Clovis I
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Which Chinese philosophy had a major influence in shaping the values of medieval Japan?
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Confucianism
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Until recently, how did archaeologists think the Mayans spent most of their time?
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Stargazing
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Which of the following groups commonly formed guilds in the Aztec city of Tenochtitlan?
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Craftsmen and Merchants
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Use the photo below to answer the following question: The photo shows a piece of cylindrical pottery, decorated with animal and human forms, painted in yellow, deep orange, and brown. Public Domain Which of the following statements does the image above support?
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The Nazca decorated their pottery with bold colors and a mix of figures
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Which of the following would not be considered an artifact by historians studying early Mesoamerican and South American cultures?
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A modern scholarly article
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The map below shows kingdoms, cities, and trade routes of Africa in the period 700−1600 CE. Use the map to answer the following question: The map shows Africa and the surrounding oceans and seas, with historic kingdoms shown as colored in areas. Dots for cities appear both within and outside the kingdoms, including a series of dots running from north to south along the coast of the Indian Ocean, the eastern edge of Africa. Lines representing trade routes crisscross the continent from city to city in a network that extends into Arabia and southern Europe. Major trade routes link the Empires of Songhai and Ghana in western Africa with Morocco in northern Africa as well as Hausa States in central Africa. Benin is directly connected to the Hausa States and Kanem-Bornu in central Africa while Kanem-Bornu is directly linked to the Funji Empire in eastern Africa. Based on the map, which African kingdom had a direct trade route with Morocco?
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Ghana
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Use the photo below of an ancient Aztec calendar to answer the following question: This circular calendar is carved in stone. It has a face in the center and is intricately decorated with details and Aztec symbols. What does this Aztec calendar indicate about Aztec culture?
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The Aztecs were very interested in measuring time
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The timeline below shows several crucial dates in Zapotec history: The timeline of Zapotec history shows the following dates: 1486 Zapotec war victory over Aztecs. 1494 Aztecs destroy Zapotec capital cities. 1496 Peace treaty with Aztecs. 1519 Zapotecs voluntarily submit to Spanish rule. 1522 Zapotec king baptized as a Christian. 1529 unsuccessful rebellion against Spain. What happened as a result of the Zapotecs agreeing to be ruled by the Spanish?
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The Zapotec King became Christian
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What caused the downfall of Ghana?
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Climate change and Berber battles
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Which of the following was not an important part of both Olmec and Maya culture?
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Quipu
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Which of the following best describes the Songhai leaders Sunni Ali and Muhammad I Askia?
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Conquerors
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Some archaeologists debate the type of influence the Olmec had on later Mesoamerican cultures. They generally argue one of these ideas: 1) All later Mesoamerican cultures all derived from the Olmec. 2) The Olmec freely communicated ideas with other contemporary peoples. Which of the following possible scenarios, if true, supports the second argument?
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The Olmecs shared pottery technology with neighboring groups, and together they developed a popular pottery style.
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Which of the following is true of the Maya, Inca, and Aztec civilizations?
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Corn was the most important crop.
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What did the Aztec and Spanish calendars have in common?
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They had days designated for religious observances.
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What conclusion did historians draw about the Incas after the discovery of Machu Picchu?
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The Incas were skilled engineers.
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Which of the following is true of the people of Great Zimbabwe?
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They were skilled craftsman and builders.
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The timeline below shows events in both Mesoamerica and South America during the century before the Spanish arrival in the Americas. Use the timeline below to answer the following question: A vertical timeline with the following entries in this order: 1400s Expansion of Aztec empire in Mexico. 1400s Inca empire enters period of expansion. 1426-40 Aztecs at Tenochtitlan form Triple Alliance with neighboring cities of Texcoco and Tlacopan, emperor Itzcoatl reorganizes state to concentrate power in his hands. 1438 Inca emperor Viracocha dies, his successor Pachacuti expands Inca empire north to Ecuador. 1440s Incas build great fortress at Cuzco. 1440-68 Reign of Aztec emperor Moctezuma I, he and his warriors conquer large areas of eastern Mexico, taking many people prisoner. 1450 Inca city of Machu Picchu built on high ridge above Urubamba River in Peru. 1455 Huge temple built to Aztec war god Huitzilopochtli in Tenochtitlan. 1470s Collapse of Chimu culture in northern Peru. 1471-93 Emperor Topa Inca expands Inca empire into Bolivia, Chile, and Argentina. 1473 Tenochtitlan absorbs neighboring Aztec city, Tlatelolco. 1486-1502 Rule of Aztec emperor Ahuitzotl, Aztec empire at height of power in Mexico. Which of the following resulted from the formation of the “Triple Alliance”?
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The continued expansion and conquests of the Aztecs
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What led to a decline in Great Zimbabwe?
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A shift in the gold trade
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Who was at the bottom of the Aztec social order?
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Slaves
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Which of the following was a main source of prosperity in ancient Ghana
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Gold
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Who were the Dyula in the Mali Empire?
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Muslim merchants
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What motivated Moctezuma I to reorganize the Aztec government?
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The massive toll of the famine
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Which group of people broke free of Egyptian rule, establishing the city of Meroe along the Nile River?
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Kush
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The image below shows the sign for one particular day in the Aztec calendar. Use the image to answer the following question: The day sign is a small iconic illustration of the head of a creature, perhaps mythical, looking something like a bird and something like a reptile. In profile, the creature stares at the viewer with a large eye in white, red, and green, and sticks out a red tongue. Its headdress, or head feathers, are striped brown and white. What inference about the Mesoamerican view of time can be made on the basis of the sign?
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For Mesoamericans, each day in the calendar had a distinct identity.
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Which of the following actions by Moctezuma I indicate that he was an skilled politician?
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He maintained the Triple Alliance while keeping Tenochtitlan dominant.
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Which of the following describes both the meaning of the word “Swahili” in Arabic and the location where most Swahili-speaking peoples lived?
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“Of the coast”
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In which of the following regions was the Aztec civilization located?
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Mesoamerica
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The following two quotes are accounts of indigenous leaders in the Americas. The first is about the Aztec emperor. The second is about the Incan ruler. Use these excerpts to answer the question that follows: “There were many…grandees around the monarch, some of whom held the canopy over his head, while others again occupied the road before him, and spread cotton cloths on the ground that his feet might not touch the bare earth. No one of his suite ever looked at him full in the face; everyone in his presence stood with eyes downcast.” “The court was filled with Indian nobles, dressed in gaily ornamented attire, in attendance on the monarch…. His dress was simpler than that of his attendants. But he wore on his head the crimson borla or fringe, which, surrounding the forehead, hung down as low as the eyebrow. This was the well-known badge of Peruvian sovereignty [royalty].” Based on the two passages, how did the Inca emperor and the Aztec emperor compare?
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The Inca emperor was more ordinary.
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In what area did the Inca excel over the Mesoamerican groups?
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Road building
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Use the following passage from the Spanish friar Bartolome de las Casas in 1542. It describes events in the Bahama Islands after the Spanish conquest: “The native population, which once numbered some five hundred thousand, was wiped out by forcible expatriation to the island of Hispaniola, a policy adopted by the Spaniards in an endeavour to make up losses among the indigenous population of that island.” Bartolome de las Casas, A Short Account of the Destruction of the Indies, 1542 What inference does the passage support?
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The Spanish Conquerors forced masses of natives to move from their homelands
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Why did some Africans oppose the ending of the slave trade?
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Some African Kingdoms gained wealth and power in the slave trade
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The cause-and-effect table shows information about the split in the Western Christian church: ?…..Split in Western Christian church that led to two rival popes before the church reunited and became Roman Catholic. Which of the following completes the table?
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The Great Schism of 1378
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Which of the following was a direct result of Vasco Da Gama’s voyage of 1497-1499?
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Portugal’s wealth increased due to its control of the spice trade with India.
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Use the photograph below to answer the following question: Image of a caravel seen in a museum setting. The two white sails have crosses on them. An image of a map lines the backdrop. How did this invention help promote the diffusion of European culture?
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European explorers were able to sail long distances to new foreign territories.
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The Portuguese gained control of the eastern part of South America through
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the Treaty of Tordesillas
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Which of the following was invented by Johann Gutenberg during the Renaissance?
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The printing press
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Use the following image of an Anatolia prayer rug from the Renaissance to answer the following question: The image shows many intricate designs and patterns in red, gold, and black. The styles shown in the Renaissance work above were influenced by which of the following?
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Islamic math
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Which of the following had the most influence on the rise of the Italian city-states?
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Trade
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How has the spread of AIDS in Africa affected the economies of that continent?
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It caused a drop in the number and productivity of workers.
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What criticism did Desiderius Erasmus have about the Roman Catholic Church?
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That the Church was corrupt and greedily sought riches
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Use the following image of “Proportions of the Human Figure or the Vitruvian Man” by Leonardo da Vinci to answer the following question: Why is Leonardo da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man considered to be a typically humanist piece of Renaissance art?
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It uses classical science to analyze the human form.
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Why did Henry VIII declare himself the head of the Church of England?
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The pope refused to grant him a legal divorce.
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How did the Black Death affect political institutions in Europe?
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The Black Death marked the end of the feudal system in many areas, as new social groups achieved economic power.
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What invention was an important tool in the hands of religious reformers?
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Printing press
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The following choices are quotations from the Spiritual Exercises of St. Ignatius Loyola, the Catholic Reformation figure. With which of Loyola’s principles would Protestant reformer John Calvin most agree?
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“…although…no one can save himself without being predestined and without having faith and grace; we must be very cautious in communicating…about all these things.”
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Which of the following describes a response of the Roman Catholic Church to the Protestant Reformation?
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The Jesuit order’s educational system produced large numbers of capable missionaries.
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Which country primarily employed the encomienda system?
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Spain
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How did the Medici influence the beginning of the Renaissance in Florence?
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They used their banking wealth and political power to foster art and architecture in the Republic of Florence.
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Use the following image to answer the following question: Photograph of the Ospedale degli Innocenti in Florence, taken from outside the building. The building appears to have multiple stories. The front of the building is lined with several cylindrical-shaped pillars made of stone. Each pillar is spaced evenly. There is a curved symmetrical structure that spans the opening between each pillar. Which major architectural influence is illustrated by the photo above?
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The use of Corinthian columns and semicircular arches demonstrates the influence of classical architecture.
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Which of the following was a new technique developed by Renaissance artists?
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Painting life-like human forms
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Why did Spanish monarchs try to end the encomienda system?
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They believed the encomienda created too much power for aristocrats.
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What did the autobiography of Olaudah Equiano reveal about slavery in the Caribbean and North America?
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Slaves were beaten, had poor living conditions, and worked long hours.

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