Y103 Chapter 4

Flashcard maker : Bettina Hugo
The necessary and proper clause ______.
is used by Congress to justify the exercise of powers not mentioned in Article I, Section 8, of the Constitution
In a parliamentary system, the ______ is the dominant branch of government.
Which of the following is NOT a disadvantage of federalism?
It enables the states serve as policy laboratories.
Federal orders that require states to operate and pay for programs created at the national level are called ______.
unfunded mandates
Congress has been reluctant to use block grants to achieve policy goals because ______.
they allow states to pursue their own goals rather than the federal government’s goals
The Constitution ______.
says very little about the powers of the states
The rulings of the Supreme Court under John Marshall contributed to enhancement of ______.
the power of the federal government
The Constitution has been amended through the formal amendment process and through ______.
judicial review
Legislative supremacy ______.
is an alternative system to judicial review
Article III of the Constitution ______.
creates the Supreme Court but allows Congress to establish lower courts
Which of the following is NOT a consequence of federalism?
It creates a more uniform environment for business activity across the country.
Although the Constitution provides for both national and state powers, ______.
the balance between state and national powers has shifted considerably since 1787
Two trends evident in the development of American federalism throughout history are the ______.
expansion of American government in general and the gradual strengthening of the federal government
One reason for the growth of the national government’s power and influence has been ______.
heightened expectations and demands placed on the federal government
Federalism in the United States ______.
was a compromise for how power should be distributed between the national and state governments
Liberals differ from conservatives in that the former are more likely to ______.
see the Constitution as a living document that can be continually altered by judicial interpretation
The founders created the ______ as an intermediate body to elect the president.
Electoral College
The New Deal increased the scope of both national and state powers by ______.
redefining the purpose of American government to include solving nationwide economic and social problems
In McCulloch v. Maryland (1819), the Supreme Court held that ______.
the federal government had the implied power to create a national bank
The text concludes that the current status of federalism ______.
is characterized by a contradictory mix of rhetoric about moving power back to the states and new national initiatives
The initiative, referendum, and recall are methods used ______.
in some state governments to allow citizens to participate more directly in government
The constitutional safeguard that places legislative, executive, and judicial powers in different hands is called ______.
separation of powers
Federal funds provided to states for a broad purpose and unrestricted by detailed requirements are called ______.
block grants
McCulloch v. Maryland increased the power of the federal government by ______.
interpreting the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution very broadly
All of the following comparisons between the president and senators are true EXCEPT this one:
Senators have always been chosen by direct election.
According to the \”Don’t Be Fooled by the Op-Ed Pages\” feature in Chapter 4, you should ask all the following questions about the op-ed section of the newspaper EXCEPT this one:
Does the author of the piece agree with you?
The national government’s rapid growth has resulted in ______.
a debate between liberals and conservatives over the proper role for the national government
The power of the Supreme Court to declare acts unconstitutional ______.
was argued by Hamilton to be consistent with the Constitution
Although the states have the authority to set the minimum drinking age, the United States has a national legal alcohol consumption age of twenty-one because ______.
the federal government threatened to withhold highway funds from any state that didn’t have a drinking age of twenty-one
Both the states and the national government may exercise all of the following powers EXCEPT this one:
Levying import or export taxes on goods
One reason for the growth of the national government’s power and influence has been ______.
heightened expectations and demands placed on the federal government
The most important effect of changing the rules by which political decisions are made is that such changes ______.
can affect who is advantaged and who is disadvantaged
In Federalist No. 51, James Madison predicted that no single branch of government would become too powerful and oppress citizens because ______.
the other two branches would curb the possibly oppressive advances of each branch
What is the key difference between categorical grants and block grants?
Block grants provide states with more leverage and power over how to spend grants-in-aid than do categorical grants.
The trend of Supreme Court’s rulings in favor of devolution ended ______.
following the attacks of September 11, 2001
In Federalist No. 78, Hamilton argued that the judiciary would be the least threatening branch of government because ______.
it does not control the military or the budget of the nation
The federal government has been able to use categorical grants to coerce states into doing what it wants most of the time because ______.
states have become financially dependent on this aid
The power of judicial review has never been adopted in Britain because _____
Britain has no written constitution to interpret
Political scientists today see federalism as ______.
a partnership between the national and state governments in which the federal government is the dominant partner
Cooperative federalism is a theory that ______.
defines state and national powers as interdependent, requiring the cooperation of each other to get things done
The congressional abilities specifically listed in Article I, Section 8, are called the ______.
enumerated powers
The founders were concerned the Supreme Court would become ______.
dominated by political concerns
The ways that the national government tries to influence the states include ______.
all of the above
Aspects of the system of checks and balances include all of the following EXCEPT this:
Presidents can force Congress to adjourn.
The founders established the Electoral College to choose the president for all of the following reasons EXCEPT to ______.
minimize state influence in the selection of presidents
The theory that defines the state and national governments as essentially separate from each other and carrying out independent functions is ______.
dual federalism
The Supreme Court has interpreted the Fourteenth Amendment to ______.
strike down racial segregation in the states
The amendment process for the Constitution ______.
was designed to allow growth and change but not to be too easy
All of the following comparisons between the American presidential and parliamentary systems are true EXCEPT this one:
The prime minister is not chosen directly by the people, whereas the president is chosen by the people via a \”one person, one vote\” system.
The New Deal increased the power of the federal government in regard to ______.
business and the economy
Gibbons v. Ogden increased the power of the national government by interpreting very broadly the ______
commerce clause of the Constitution
The Supreme Court has interpreted the ______ clause of the Constitution so broadly that there are very few restrictions on what Congress can do.
necessary and proper

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