Writing for psychology

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What are the four components of the Title Page?
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The four components that make up the title page are the header, the title, your name (first name middle initial and last name), and schools name.
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What is an ABSTRACT? What information does it provide? Are there specific requirements for content or length (e.g., number of sentences or number of words)? If so, what are those requirements?
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An abstract is an unindented paragraph that briefly summarizes the contents of a paper in one paragraph, with a 150-word limit. The abstract provides information on the running head, paper title, first name middle initial and last name, school, keynotes, author notes, hypothesis, method, participants, and procedures.
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Where is the Abstract found in an American Psychological Association (APA) style paper? How does the Abstract actually \”LOOK\” ON THE PAGE? How is it formatted? Does this page appear to be any different than the rest of the document? How long is an Abstract? How are NUMBERS expressed in APA style? Your answers to these questions must be VERY specific or you will not receive full points.
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The abstract is found on page 2, and announced by the heading labelled \”Abstract\”. How the abstract actually looks on the page is in direct correlation to how it is formatted. In the abstracts format, the page header contains the running head, in all capital letters and the page number. It is one paragraph in length that is unindented, heading is centered in normal size font. The abstract is followed with an indention of 5 spaces then starts the \”keywords\” paragraph. The abstract appears different than the rest of the document in the way that it is not indented and is double-spaced. The abstract must be fewer than 151 words and in 250 words or fewer for the entire abstract providing a self-contained summary of your entire paper. Numbers are expressed in APA style as their number except those beginning a sentence.
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How is the beginning of the main text of your manuscript indicated? What is and \”INTRODUCTION\” paragraph, and what is the goal of this part of your document?
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The beginning of the main text of your manuscript is indicated by page 3 which is following the abstract. The introduction heading is the title of your paper and is centered. The introduction paragraph is an overview of your general topic and is composed of the history on that particular subtopic, key definitions, and your thesis statement. Your introduction is a self-contained short paragraph. The goal of your introduction is that it should foreshadow the rest of your paper.
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What is the purpose of the first two sentences of his part of your paper? What might you do to accomplish that purpose?
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The purpose of the first 2 sentences of your paper is to engage the reader. To accomplish this task one could highlight the importance of their paper by providing an example, a statistic, and key terms that would further your argument or to obtain the readers interest.
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What are \”key definitions?\” WHY are these definitions important? Why is it important that your professor understand your key definitions?
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Key definitions are phrases or words that could be used by someone searching for an article on the topic of your paper and terms found \”in the PsycINFO thesaurus\” (p. 33) or \”APA Dictionary of Psychology\” (p. 35), which are necessary for defining a term and to provide clarification on meaning. These key definitions are important because they provide clear and in depth definitions to terms in order for the reader to understand ones thesis. It is important that your professor understands your key definitions because by your professor demonstrating understanding iterates that you have clearly understood and demonstrated the proper usage and meaning for each psychological definition found in your paper.
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You always tell your reader what you will be discussing in your paper. Why is this important, and how do you accomplish this task?
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It is important that you always tell what you will be discussing in your paper so that reader is constantly reminded of the argument you are trying to make and how everything you present in your paper ties back to your original thought. You accomplish the task of informing the reader on what you will be discussing by your thesis statement. More specifically in your thesis statement, \”…include the main conclusion… in the opening statement, you must make sure to put your thesis statement in your introduction.\” (p. 36)
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Why is it necessary to have an organising theme for your document?
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It is necessary to have an organising theme for your document because you must demonstrate how the evidence you have chosen supports your thesis and conclusion. It is also necessary to have an organising theme so you can organize your paper around different ideas and not authors or studies.
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What are the various possible themes for your document?
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The various possible themes for organising your paper are to provide a history for the topic, evaluate the different solutions, evaluate the different opinions, organize findings around theories, to question the validity of a theory, and to look for methodological differences.
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HOW does having an ORGANISED OUTLINE help you in organising – and thus in writing – your assignment? List and explain each of the ways indicated.
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Having an organised outline helps you in organising your paper and notes with a consistent approach. Since you write your paper from your outline, the outline indicates which studies you should discuss and when. The five ways indicated in the book are that an outline will: keep focus on main ideas, help connect different ideas and make the topic understanding clearer, show you where or what notes not to put in your paper, different ways for ordering thoughts or points for your paper in the best possible order for your argument, and where to properly add transitions that will lead into the different paragraphs of your paper.
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What does it mean to be CONCISE in your writing? WHY is this important?
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To be concise in your writing means to be comprehensive but brief, highlighting \”… only what happened in the study, what was found, and what was concluded.\” (p.40) It is important to be concise in your writing because including details that are irrelevant increases the chances for plagiarism. Not being concise in your writing leads to uselessly quoting a source or sources, and distracting the reader’s attention away from your proposed argument.
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Why is PRECISION important, and what does being precise accomplish?
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Precision is your writing is important because you need to show the reader, not tell, how your evidence supports your position, leaving out the unnecessary relevant details. \”Telling (\”Trust me: I am right\”) is not nearly as convincing as showing (\”See for yourself that I am right\”)\” (p. 40). Being precise in your writing accomplishes the task of acting as support towards your position. Being precise also strengths the readers ability to comprehend your thesis and identify support and why.
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How should one approach arguing a position in favour or against a position about which you are writing?
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One should approach arguing a position in favour, or against a position, about which you are writing. Focusing on facts and being fair to the opposing position. \”… you must base your statements on the evidence, consider alternative explanations for the evidence, and be careful not to go too far beyond the evidence.\” (p. 41).
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What is an ad hominem attack in terms of making an argument? Give an example that is NOT in your textbook.
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An ad hominem attack, in terms of making an argument, attacks the character of someone in their argument, or advocates that the opposing party is inferior. An ad hominem attack criticizes or stereotypes the evidence of someone else’s argument. Being bias rather than using logic and being fair and open minded to the opposing position. An example of an ad hominem attack would be if someone said told you they turned vegan and that you should as well, yet they were eating a cupcake that contained eggs in front of you.
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Should one present information (data) that does not agree with your position? WHY or why NOT?
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Yes one should present information or data that does not agree with your position. You must be fair to the opposing argument or position. Presenting evidence that supports your thesis while failing to recognize evidence that contradicts \”…your claim, you could make a convincing case for almost any claim…\” (p. 41). You want to have a strong argument one that is not completely one sided and rather presents the opposing position. Failing to acknowledge the opposition position and simply just using facts and logic as support towards ones argument can be taken inadmissible towards your thesis statement and paper.
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There are several errors often made in writing technical papers (and APA style papers ARE technical, as they report FACTS based on DOCUMENTED EVIDENCE). WHAT are these errors, and HOW does one avoid making them?
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There 3 careless errors that are often made in writing technical papers (APA style papers are technical, since they report facts based on documented evidence). Those 3 types of errors are \”(a) confusing correlation for causation, (b) overgeneralizing, and (c) making appeals to ignorance\” (p. 42). One can avoid making these errors if you know your limitations. Those are that \”correlation is not causality…generalizing is risky…and…the problem with appeals to ignorance: failing to find something is not a discovery.\” (p. 42)
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How does one bring an APA paper to a \”successful\” conclusion?
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One brings an APA paper to a successful conclusion by briefly telling their readers what they have already told them, paralleling to the opening paragraphs of the introduction. In the conclusion you should review your paper by presenting your thesis statement, restating the main evidence in support of your thesis statement, explain how the data and different criticisms that oppose your thesis statement do not weaken your argument, and finally restating your thesis statement. Your concluding sentence \”…should essentially say, \”I have shown that [my thesis statement] is probably true.\”\”(p. 43)
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What is the PURPOSE of your Conclusion? What must be taken into consideration (or avoided) when writing your Conclusion?
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The purpose of your conclusion is that it restates your \”argument, making proper qualifications\” (p. 55). Your conclusion summarizes your defense on your thesis and your thesis statement restated. You must take into consideration that you must conclude your conclusion and not introduce anything new. \”To reiterate, you should not sneak new data, new interpretations of previously discussed data, or any other new revelations into your conclusion\” (p. 43).
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What is the PURPOSE of your References page (or section)?
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The purpose of your reference page or section is to give credit appropriately to any sources you have used or drawn from in support towards your paper. Your reference page also helps to prevent against any form of plagiarism.
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What information is included in your References? Are there specific information sources that MUST be included here? Are there information sources that should NOT be included here?
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The information that is included in your references is the author or authors, …\”title of the work…when the work was published or presented, and where the work was published or presented.\” (p.150). The specific information sources that must be included in your references are books, journal articles, \”abstracts of journal articles\” (p.162), database sources, general psychology textbooks, encyclopaedia, empirical articles, and the psychological dictionary. Yes there are information sources that should not be included in your reference page; those are sources readers cannot recover, and \”sources that you did not read but instead only read about in another source\” (pg. 148). Magazines and web sources as well should not be included in your references.
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You have studied TENSE in your English classes – past tense, present tense, future tense (to list only the most obvious and common). Which tense should you use when writing which parts of your assignments? WHY is this important?
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You use past tense when citing work published within a given year, since it \”has a definite date in the past\” (p.44), which means that when referring to cited sources for evidence you use past tense. You use present tense to state conclusions and \”…anything current, including material in your paper, that you are inviting the reader to consider\” (p.44). Your conclusion and any commentary or generalizations found in your paper should be written in the present tense. You \”use the future tense when introducing your thesis\” (p.44). Future tense is used in introducing your argument, and thesis. Which tense you should use in your paper and when is important because tense is an essential factor in APA formatting and will help you \”make an organized, logical, evidence-based case for a position\” (pg. 27) towards any paper.
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APA style does NOT PERMIT use of the word \”you\” when writing an APA document. WHY is this the case?
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APA style does not permit the use of the word \”you\” when writing your paper because your paper should be focused on ideas rather than you. \”In formal papers, you are not to speak directly to the reader, so you should not use \”you\” or any other second person pronouns.\” (p. 196) The personal pronouns you use in your paper, will be generally addressed in third person.
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What are SECONDARY CITATIONS, and when would you use them? Give an example that is NOT in your textbook.
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Secondary citations are citations that are used to include information that is referred to in a different source. The citing of what another person has said or done \”after reading a second person’s account of what the first person did or said.\”(p. 134). You use secondary citations when you want to provide a beginning point for research, referencing significant citations, or to persuade authority. An example of a secondary citation would be if you took a quote from a source, and that specific quote ended in (as cited in Mack, 2001).
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What are \”written\” versus \”unwritten\” directions? List both the written and unwritten directions you would need to know BEFORE beginning any assignment in a psychology class.
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Written directions are the guidelines that one needs to follow specifically for information on formatting and main goals the professor has given. Your professor will relay any written directions in shorthand following the rules in chapters 4 – 7, WRITING FOR PSYCHOLOGY, 4th ED. Unwritten directions refers to the professors expectations that are to \”go without saying\” meaning the style of the paper, the quality of your answers and work, the time one puts into it, and how one \”…should plan, write, revise, and present…a paper that has the intellectual weight, formal tone, editorial sound, and professional look…\” All professors share common expectations and underlying values. The basis for critical thinking assumes contextual familiarities and forms correlations that are logically developed.
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Define \”academic values.\” Based on your reading AND your instructor’s comments in class, which of the values listed on page three do you believe to be MOST important. Why (this requires you to carefully consider what is or is not relevant, and state your position completely)?
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\”Academic values\” refers to one’s integrity and discipline academically. Academic values compel one into achieving understanding and knowledge such as \”…basing opinions on facts, being open to new evidence…\” and to reject any human impulses that oppose understanding and knowledge for example \”…forcing evidence to fit preconceived opinions, being closed-minded\”. Out of all the academic values listed on page three, based upon reading and instructor’s comments in class the most important value is \”the honesty to give others credit when you use what you have learned from them, such as when you quote, paraphrase, or summarize what others have said\”. A virtuous cycle both advances concepts and protects the fundamental development of ideas.
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What are the differences between paraphrasing and summarizing? Be VERY specific with your answers. Based on your reading and your instructor’s comments in class, which of the two does your professor prefer you do when writing your assignments? WHY does your professor have this preference?
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The difference between paraphrasing and summarizing what one has found is that paraphrasing refers to restating while summarizing is a condensation. One who is unclear about what another is trying to say would normally paraphrase; restating someone else’s ideas to \”your own words\”. Summarizing \”material from a source\” shows understanding of the main point. Based on reading and instructor’s comments in class, the professor prefers you to summarize rather than paraphrasing in writing an assignment. Providing a summary rather than paraphrasing demonstrates ones understanding of material and the ability to regurgitate material back into your own words, rather than shortening or restating what the author said. The professor is looking for your own words, ideas, thoughts, and opinions not what someone else’s. A summary is a verbal formula of abstractions used to convey understanding and differentiations.
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What steps should you take to insure that you can \”defend your claim with logic and evidence?\” Why are both logic and evidence important? How do you indicate WHERE you found your information (i.e., your evidence)?
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Reading your paper in the opposing position as a person, who disagrees with your claim, will show you how well you supported your claim with logic. Question if your conclusions are logically followed by your assertions. Assuming evidence is substantially correct ask two questions. \”First, ask, \”Do the reasons and arguments I give clearly lead to my conclusion?\” …Second, ask, \”Could someone use my arguments to support a different conclusion?\”\” \”Once you establish that your conclusions logically follow from your assertions question whether your assertions are true and supported by evidence.\” Statements that are unsupported or that could be questioned should be followed by an empirical defense. \”The first, and most common, way to mount an empirical defense is to cite evidence from a study someone else conducted… The second way to mount an empirical defense is to present evidence from a study you conducted.\” Additionally, these are all steps one should take to insure that one can defend their claim with logic and evidence. Logic and evidence are used to demonstrate coherence of the elements supporting your claim. All presumptive knowledge is derived from externalities; as such a structural chain should logically support the integration of new correlation. You indicate where you found your supporting evidence at the end of your paper, \”A full reference to each citation should appear in the reference list…\” The components of the reference list are author name or names, publication date, title of work, and publication data.
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What does it mean when we say you must \”be honest?\” Answer this question as completely as possible.
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The meaning behind \”be honest\” is you must be truthful in your facts using your own thoughts and ideas without infringing on the work of others. One can demonstrate honesty by avoiding falsifying data and plagiarism. When we are told \”be honest\” we must neither alter or invent data or present someone else’s ideas or words as our own.
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Why does your professor require you to \”use your own words?\”
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Your professor requires you to \”use your own words\” because a professor is intent is for one to express their own thoughts about the material not just the ability to combine words with joining sentences. Also by using your own words one shows an understanding for what they have read, unlike quoting. A student’s usage of verbal concepts reveals the understanding for the depth subject, without ambiguity or superficiality.
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What is \”APA Style?\”
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\”APA Style\” is the style and formatting requirements and guidelines that are described in the Publication Manual of the American Psychological Association (2010). When writing an APA Styled paper, your professor expects one to draw from the works of others yet still propose an original idea. \”Cites the work of others but describes their work into your own words, and uses logic and evidence to build a case for an idea but addresses contradictory evidence.\”
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What are the ideals of APA style writing, and WHY are they important?
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The ideals of APA style writing are \”…that grammar, spelling, and punctuation be perfect.\” APA style says good writing must be exact in its wording, free of doubt, orderly presentation of ideas, logical, flows, and considerate of its audience. The ideals of APA style writing are important to the profundity of the underlying suppositions. Attention to details and exhaustive subject treatment prevents avoidable peer criticism.
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Writing in APA Style does NOT allow you to use the personal pronoun \”I.\” WHY is this not permitted? You must be VERY explicit when writing your response to this question.
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Writing in APA Style does not allow you to use the personal pronoun \”I\” because the purpose of the paper is to express findings and ideas, not tell about the authors unsupported opinions. Skilled writers will take the word \”I\” out of a sentence if they feel it’s focusing the reader’s attention on the writer rather than the content of the paper. \”In reality, researchers make hypotheses, conduct studies, and come to conclusions. Skilled writers respect that reality and the laws of grammar. Therefore, skilled writers may use verbs to describe researchers’ actions and make the researcher performing the action the subject of the sentence. Occasionally, such skilled writers may also add an adverb to an action verb to describe how the researcher performed the action\”.
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What does anthropomorphize mean, and WHY must you be careful to avoid this behaviour?
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The definition of anthropomorphize is to give human qualities to animals, objects or natural phenomena. You must be careful to avoid this behaviour because unlike in the past APA Style does not allow writers to \”disown their own thoughts—even if that meant violating the laws of nature. For example, authors routinely credited their thoughts to non-living entities, such as…papers (e.g., \”this paper will argue\”…\” APA Style \”uses logic and evidence to build a case for an idea but addresses contradictory evidence.\” Since APA Style uses logic and evidence to build a case rather than anthropomorphism which violates \”the laws of nature.\”
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There are two basic rules applied to saying what you mean clearly and simply. What are those rules, and why is each of them so important?
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The two basic rules applied to saying what you mean clearly and simply are \”First, do not use fancy words or fancy phrases just to impress your professor…Second, do not banish technical terms from your paper.\” The first basic rule is so important because fancy words and phrases can lead to pretentiousness in your writing, causing unclarity and wordiness. The second basic rule is so important because your professor expects you to have an understanding for \”…key terms well enough (a) to use those terms to express your ideas more precisely and concisely than if you had used everyday language and (b) to make distinctions between related concepts.\”
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What is \”respectful language,\” and WHY is it important in APA Style?
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\”Respectful language\” refers to avoiding language that might imply that \”another group is less competent, less important, less moral, or less likely to occupy a certain role than your own.\” Respectful language is very important in APA Style because it is crucial one uses words that are precise, respectable, and inclusive. When one must address individuals based upon \”gender, race, disability, or age, be accurate, specific, cautious, and respectful\”. By taking these precautions one ensures they do not offend another unknowingly.
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What does it mean to procrastinate, and WHY should you NOT engage in this practice?
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The definition of to procrastinate is to put aside or to wait till the last minute to complete something. It is important that you should not engage in this practice because procrastination causes one to be unthorough which leads to mistakes. Leaving yourself limited amount of time rather than starting an assignment early causing one to rush and not put forth their full effort on reading, finding, and answering material.
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You should ALWAYS have ANY assignment ready for submission AT LEAST 48 HOURS BEFORE the due date. This is critical with regard to written assignments. Meeting this 48-hour deadline is critical to your academic success in any discipline. WHY is having your work ready to submit two days before it is due so important?
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One having their work ready to submit two days before it is due is important because your professor presumes \”Anything that goes wrong will have the worst possible outcome… Anything that can possibly go wrong will… It will go wrong at the worst possible time.\” Basic understanding of cause and effect in a global environment prevents inevitabilities from becoming catastrophic. It is understood there are no excuses or exemptions. One can ensure their academic success by meeting this 48-hour deadline.
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Organizing your work in terms of selecting an article (or topic for a term paper), developing a thesis statement (just as you would in an English class) for your assignment, locating and reading completing your assignments successfully. Why is preparing an OUTLINE critical to this process? HOW does one make an outline, and WHAT are its components?
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Preparing an outline is critical to this process because \”outline helps you know what you have, what you should throw out, what you need, and what you should put where.\” An outline helps one organize their thoughts and notes, provides key ideas, major headings, and topic sentences. The components of an outline are a topic, an evolving question or thesis statement, relevant articles, reading and critiquing, taking, maintaining and keeping up with notes and articles. You make an outline by listing key points and strategically grouping related points. \”…Your outline—because it lists, orders, and groups your ideas from first to last and from more important to less important—can act as a guide that prevents you from leaving out important points, unintentionally going back and repeating important points, and wandering off topic (Meyer & Meyer, 1993).\” The outline should act to summarize the finished product.
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What is the process (i.e., the process) for writing your FIRST DRAFT?
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The process for writing your first draft is to have first done background research and made an outline. After organizing your thoughts and notes, start writing. When writing your first draft the purpose is to get your thoughts onto paper, not worrying about wording. Writing continuously for a certain amount of time or free-writing can help one start their rough draft if they find themselves stuck. Having an introduction and a conclusion are vital to originate.
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Reorganizing, rethinking, rereading, and rewriting are all part of REVISING your FIRST DRAFT. What does each of those processes require of you? WHY must your REVISE your first draft rather than considering your assignment as complete and ready to submit for grading?
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One must revise their first draft rather than considering the assignment complete and ready for submission. Re-outlining, rereading, rewriting helps filter thinking. Additionally, with each revision one establishes more insight, originality, organization, arguments, and support. Reorganizing, rethinking, rereading, and rewriting each require that you ask questions, gather material, get rid of unnecessary material, find new material, and refine your outline.
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WHO is your primary audience (the most important person who will be reading you work)? What must YOU do in writing your assignments to insure that this person can successfully navigate your writing?
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\”The reader\” is your primary audience, and the most important person who will be reading your work is the professor. You must organize your thinking in the process of writing ones assignment in such a form that it is clear to the reader. One can achieve this by including short subheadings, topic sentences, and transition sentences between paragraphs insuring that the reader can successfully navigate through their writing.
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WHY must you exercise EXTREME CAUTION when using PRONOUNS?
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You must exercise extreme caution when using pronouns to prevent loss of clarity and grave misconceptions. Also one must be extremely cautious when using pronouns to avoid the bias of gender, induced ambiguity and unintentional narrowing of scope or significance of treatment.
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How does one \”POLISH\” one’s writing?
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One polishes one’s writing by repeating the processes of assembly, seeking harmony and balance until there is the highest degree of fidelity. You can polish your writing by varying the lengths of composed sentences. Combining short sentences into one main idea provides a better understanding and connections of ideas. Also check for clumsy phrases, passive sentences that may be too wordy and uncommonly long sentences that could be separated into two. Another way to \”POLISH\” one’s writing is to substantiate it by removing avoidable words.
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Although you are REQUIRED to use BOTH SpellCheck AND GrammarCheck to insure your work does not contain misspelled words or incorrect grammar, WHY is it foolish to rely on either or both programs to find all your errors?
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Even though one is required to use GrammarCheck to insure your work does not contain incorrect grammar, it is foolish to rely on its programs to find all your errors. GrammarCheck will fail to alert you \”that some ungrammatical passages are ungrammatical… and will tell you that some grammatical passages are ungrammatical.\” One is also required to use SpellCheck to insure your work does not contain misspelled words, and it too would be foolish simply rely on its programs to find all your errors. SpellCheck tends to report tons of correctly spelled words as mistakes and will not correct \”…\”there\” for \”their,\” \”to\” for \”two,\” \”then\” for \”than,\”…\” etc.
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What are some of the errors that both SpellCheck AND GrammarCheck will assist you in finding so that you may correct them BEFORE submitting your work?
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SpellCheck will assist you in finding any spelling errors, assuring you that everything is spelled correctly before submitting your work. SpellCheck will also alert the writer if a word is repeated in your writing. GrammarCheck assists one in catching any grammar or grammatical errors prior to submitting your work. In addition, GrammarCheck can help one exclude unlively words in their writing and prewarn one of any inappropriate language or informal language such as \”…contractions, clichés, and slang terms…\”
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What are the \”FIVE FINAL CHECKS\” you must make on your work BEFORE submitting it for grading? WHY are these steps so important?
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The \”FIVE FINAL CHECKS\” one must take on their own work before submitting it for a grade are as followed. \”First, make sure that you have not plagiarized by checking your paper against your original sources… Second, make sure your citations follow APA format and that they match your reference list…Third, make sure that your reference list is in APA format…Forth, make sure that your title page is in APA format… Fifth, make sure that your paper conforms to any additional requirements that your professor has imposed\”. These five steps are so important because even after you have finished your paper, the chance for possible deductions remain so by taking the \”FIVE FINAL CHECKS\” one can refrain from them.
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Psychology
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Is a broad field, with many specialities. Fundamentally the science of behavior and mental processes. Includes not only mental processes but also behaviors. Domain covers both internal mental processes that we observe only indirectly (such as thinking, feeling, and desiring) as well as external, observable behaviors (such as talking, smiling, and running). The science of ______ is based on objective, verifiable evidence–not just the opinions of experts and authorities.
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3 ways of doing psychology
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Experimental psychologists, teachers of psychology, and applied psychologists
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Recall: in what way is modern psychology’s scope broader than the greek concept of psyche?
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Recall: name 2 types of applied psychologists
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True or false: most psychologists are therapists
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Application: which critical thinking questions discussed in this section would be most applicable to the argument that harsher sentences are the best way of dealing with crime because \”punishment is the only language that criminals understand\”?
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How is psychology different from psychiatry and other disciplines that deal with people?
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German scientistm first person to call himself a \”psychologist\” , founder of the worlds first psychology laboratory at the university of leipzig. \”introspection\”
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Wilhelm Wundt
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Necker cube
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Ambiguous two-dimensional figure of a cube that can be seen from different perspectives, is used to illustrate notion that there is no single \”right way\” to view psychological processes.
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Structuralism
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Wundt’s pupil, Edward Bradford Titchener, brought the quest for the elements of consciousness to America, where Titchener began calling it _____.Titchener’s term was fitting, because his goal–like of Wundt–was to reaveal the most basic \”structures\” or components of the mind.
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Considered the father of structuralism even though never used the term
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Wundt
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Objections espically targeted the introspective method as being too subjective
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structuralism
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William james
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One of Wundts most vocal critics, the american psychologist agrued that Wundts approach was too narrow. \”Psychology should include the function of consciousness not just its structure\”, he argued. His brand of psychology led to a \”school\” that became known as functionalism.Found charles darwins ideas to be far more interesting than Wundt’s, Like Darwin he had a deep interest in emotion that included its relation to the body and behavior not just as an element of consciousness, as in Wundt’s system.
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The term school
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Refers to a group of thinkers who share the same core beliefs.
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Strict behaviorists
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Such as B F Skinner, believed that psychology should focus on the laws that govern behavior-that is, on the realtions between stimuli and responses–rather than on the subjective processes of the mind.

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