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World Music Test 1B

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An _______ is a short repeated figure that forms the foundation for improvisation or other variations
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ostinato
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_______ refers to the relative pitch at which words are spoken, often indicating differences in meaning within a language
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inflection
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The stressed beginning of a metrical cycle is called the _______
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downbeat
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_______ refers to the superimposition of two distinct rhythmic patterns atop one another
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polyrhythm
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When an instrument a buzz as a performance background sound is called the _______
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background shimmer
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A drum that can imitate the rhythm and common pitch levels of speech is called what?
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talking drum
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In many African cultures, what type of instruments primarily play music?
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percussion
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Which of the following statements is true?
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Everyone participates in making music in traditional African societies
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In most African cultures, what almost always accompanies music?
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dancing
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endere
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flute from Uganda
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balafon
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wooden xylophone of West Africa
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inanga
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trough zither from Uganda
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adungu
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bow harp from Uganda
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endongo
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bridged lyre of Uganda
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What is the distinctive African singing style that combines a breathy delivery with a growl-like tone?
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whisper singing
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A common African instrument that has multiple strings attached to a curved stick is called what?
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bow harp
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What is the style of ensemble performance in which a melody is divided among players?
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alternation playing
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The angled implement that is used to strike the head of a drum with a straight and solid impact is called what?
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elbow stick
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Which is not an idiophone?
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barrel drum
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What is the name of the simple, chordophone type instrument consisting of a single string attached to a curved stick?
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musical bow
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What is the function of the leader’s drum cues in Atsia?
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signaling a pattern to the drummers and dancers
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Name the instruments that accompany the hatsiatsia and describe their respective constructions
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atake-a small circular piece of iron folded in half; gankogui-double iron bell
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Describe the interaction between the lead singer and the chorus during the suite.
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the chorus responds to the singer
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What comprises a full performance of Atsia and how long does it take to perform?
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different songs and dances that can last for hours
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How many pulses comprise the core rhythmic cycle of the hatsiatsia?
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12
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What is the name of the drum played by the lead drummer?
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atsimewu
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The axatse heard during Atsia is what kind of instrument?
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idiophone
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What is wu-gbe?
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drumming language
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kumbengo
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ostinato patterns that form the basis for kora pieces
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kora
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a 21 stringed harp-lute
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jalolu
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a caste of musicians that specialize in preserving history through song
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birimintingo
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contrasting embellishments that interrupt the flow of ostinato patterns
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Explain the musical interaction between the mbira players in Nhemasusasa
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they play interlocking polyrhythms
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How is the basic melody organized in Nhemasusasa
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3 distinct melodies
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What are the two singing styles heard in the excerpt, and how do they differ?
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yodeling- quick jumps between vibrational modes in the vocal chords; mahon’era-softer, breathy voices at the bottom of a singer’s range
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What are some possible topics for composed songs that accompany mbira music?
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poems about specific people or politics
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What is the name of the rattle that sometimes accompanies an mbira ensemble?
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hosho
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How many pulses does the basic melody of Nhemamusasa last?
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48
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What is the classification for an mbira?
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idiophone
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Which of the following is a small drum that sometimes added to an mbira ensemble?
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ngoma
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_______ is the Nigerian style of music that combines traditional talking drum music, popular dance music, and Islamic praise songs
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fuji
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The South African style of music that is played with pennywhistles and one-stringed basses is called _______ or _______
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pennywhistle jive or kwela
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In Senegal, the _______ style popularized new combinations of traditional instruments, styles, and forms with pop characteristics
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mbalax
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The introduction of Western harmony in the 1920’s and 30’s to African polyphony brought about an a capella style known as
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mbube
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In the 1960’s, kwela music was transformed into _______ or _______ through the use of saxophones, electric guitars, and female choruses
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sax jive or mbaqanga
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What is the current name for a capella music in South Africa?
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iscathamiya
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What is the African name for a dance style that originated with diamond mine workers?
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isicathulo
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Which of the following is not represented in West African popular music?
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polyrhythms
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Originally known as palm wine music, what is the name for the 1950’s dance band style of music from West Africa?
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highlife
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What is the name that Fela Kuti gave to his style of popular music?
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Afro-beat
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What was the Jewish Diaspora and how has Jewish ethnicity been affected as a result?
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scattering of Jews from their ancestral homeland; Sephardic Jews settled in Spain, Portugal, and later the Mediterranean; Ashkenazi Jews settled in Central and Eastern Europe
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What are the five pillars of Islam?
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confession of faith, prayer five times a day, fasting during Ramadan, almsgiving, pilgrimage to Mecca
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What are dervishes and what is the makeup of the ensemble that accompanies them?
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dancers of the Melevi Sufi tradition, accompanied by nay flutes, daff drums, other instruments, and a chorus
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What is a melisma?
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melodies with many notes to a syllable
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_______ tones are those pitches that lie between the tones of the Western chromatic scale.
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quarter
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Women who dance for entertainment in Egypt are called _______.
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ghawazi
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_______, meaning “remembrance,” is a Sufi ceremony in which cyclic rhythmic figures accompany repetitive chanting.
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dhikr
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The _______ are the singers of the call to prayer, which can be heard five times a day in most Islamic cities.
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mu’adhdhin
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What is the typical texture of Middle Eastern music?
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heterophony
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Which of the following is not an accepted form of religious music?
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folk songs related to everyday life
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Chanting of the Qur’an is known as what?
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tilawah
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What is the name for the florid song that signals that it is time to pray?
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adhan
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What is a zagharit , who typically practices it, and when is it usually heard?
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cry rapidly trilled with the tongue by North African women during celebrations
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Describe the rabab.
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a bowed chordophone with a spike on the top, played by sliding the finger along the string
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What are the typical features of Middle Eastern singing?
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elaborate melodies, improvisation based on basic tones, use of quarter tones
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What is circular breathing? Name two instruments on which this practice is common.
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when the player blows out while simultaneously breathing through the nose, common with the zurna
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What are the levers and intermediate bridges used for on the qanun?
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allow for quick tuning changes
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saz
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long necked fretted lute with a tear shaped body and three or four strings
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nay
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end blown notch flute that is played on the side of the mouth
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daff
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shallow frame drum on which small cymbals may be attached
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zurna
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a conical bore, double-reed aerophone, which the player takes the entire reed into the mouth to form an air chamber
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ud
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a pear shaped lute with no frets and five or six courses, one of the most important art music instruments of the Islamic region
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Which of the following is a hammered dulcimer?
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santur
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What is the classification of a tar?
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plucked long-necked flute
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What are the features of the kamanche?
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short-necked fiddle, fingerboard, pear shaped body
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How many pipes does the single reed arghul have?
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2
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What is the name of the goblet shaped drum that is played with the fingers and found in most Arabic countries?
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darabukkah
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What is tarab?
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transcendent emotional experience
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Describe the performance of the taqism.
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a journey through a sequence of emphasized pitches
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What are the iqa’ and how are they defined?
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Arabic rhythmic form, defined by duration, accents, and levels of accents so that different beats may have characteristic sounds
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What are the two choral styles found in traditional Arabic music and how are they different?
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responsorial-alternating leader/group singing; antiphonal-two alternating groups singing
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Who is the primary carrier of the iqa’ during the dance performance?
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riqq player
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How many pitches per octave are found in Arabic music?
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24
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What is the name of the modal construct found in Arabic music?
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maqam
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What are jins?
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small scalar segments
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What is a tahkt and what instruments might it be a part of?
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ensemble of five musicians; qanum, ud, nay, riqq
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Describe the sha’bi genre of music? Where did it start?
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propulsive rhythmic patterns of folk dances with monophonic or heterophonic melodies; started in Europe
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qasida
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an instrumental piece with a refrain, often in a meter with 10 beats that shifts to triple meter to end the piece
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sama’i
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a partly improvised song in colloquial Arabic and is introduced by a non-pulsitile vocal section
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mawwal
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a song that sets a classical Arabic poem, including the meter, and often repeats the first line as a refrain
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tahmilla
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an instrumental piece in which instruments trade solo improvisations, alternating with a refrain
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What is the purpose of the daramad in Dastgah Mahur?
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establishes the tonic and explores the lower tetrachord of the scale
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Describe the genre known as reng.
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ensemble music in a dance rhythm
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What is a pishdaramad and what is its texture?
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introductory piece for ensemble in duple or triple meter; heterophonic
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Describe the chahar mezrab section of the Dastgah Mahur.
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strongly metered and contrasting interlude
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What is a tasnif and how does text setting relate to it?
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a composed song in a fixed meter accompanied by a soloist or ensemble, not set in a classical poetic setting
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An entire collection of gusheh, which has been published in various formats is called a _______.
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dastgah
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Light classical, dance, and traditional entertainment music is performed by musicians known as ________.
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motreb
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Short related melodies called _______ are used by performers to construct improvisations.
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gusheh
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A _______ is defined as a collection of melodies that share certain characteristics.
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The seven-note scale that characterizes a dastgah is called the _______.
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maye
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What is cantillation and when did it evolve?
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chanting of Biblical text evolved in the 5th century BCE
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What instruments are typically found in a klezmer band?
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violin, bass, dulcimer, clarinet
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Who are the Ashkenazi and what musical feature did they retain from the Middle East?
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Jews settled in Central and Eastern Europe; nondiatonic tones
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What are hazzunut?
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nonpulsitile songs based on certain scales and collections of melodic motives
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Levites
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a hereditary caste of professional Jewish musicians
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shteygers
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the modes of the Ashkenazi tradition
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cantors
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singers who perform cantillation during public services
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nigun
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Hasidic songs that express joy through the use of abstract syllables
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The melodic formulas used for cantillation are indicated by signs called what?
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ta’amim
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The Jews that settled in Spain, Portugal, and the Mediterranean following the split of the Roman Empire are considered what tradition?
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Sephardic
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Which of the following is not a feature of Klezmer music?
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vocal oriented improvisation
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What is the name of the ballad-type folk songs that emerged from the Sephardic tradition?
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romancero