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World Literature Test 1 Essay

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Allegory
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an extended metaphor that represents a typically much more complex or abstract idea in a more simple concrete manner.
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Metaphor
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an implied comparison that asserts that a subject is the same as another otherwise unrelated object.
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Satire
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a genre that utilizes over-the-topic images or situations to create a serious critique of society in a humorous manner.
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Bildungsroman (Coming of Age Story)
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a genre that focuses on the mental and moral growth of the protagonist from youth to adulthood–this typically includes a mentor that has to die, companions or foils that highlight the protagonist’s qualities, and an antagonist that the hero must overcome to reach adulthood
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Picaresque
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a genre that focuses on the adventures of a roguish hero of low social class who lives by his wits in a corrupt society.
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Symbolism
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a style of art that captures Absolute Truths by indirect methods–therefore, real world phenomenons (man, nature, etc…) should not described for their own sake, but to represent primordial ideals (kinds of shared beliefs or images). The symbols should evoke these ideals rather than describe them.
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Phantasmagoria
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the projection or the overlaying (by the poet) of an otherworldly or supernatural image over a real world object.
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Optimism
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In short, a philosophy that presupposes that the world we live in is the best of all possible worlds–that is, our world is the optimal world, and if bad things happen it means that it would be impossible for things to be better.
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Sublime
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A thing or experience that we perceive as not just beautiful or overwhelming, but boundlessly powerful and beyond explanation or adequate description. This is somewhat counter to what we discussed as ineffable, or intellectually beyond explanation or understanding.
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Æsthetics
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a branch of philosophy dealing with the nature of art, beauty, and taste, with the creation and appreciation of beauty.
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Art in the Age of Enlightenment
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during the 17th and 18th centuries, empiricism and rationalism were the focus of art, which tended to be demonstrated by the belief in the power of human reason, success, and certainty.
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Romanticism
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art that has moved away from the Enlightenment Era focus on reason and logic towards a focus on senses, feelings, faith and intuition. The Enlightenment was less a set of ideas than it was a set of values. At its core was a critical questioning of traditional institutions, customs, and morals, and a strong belief in rationality and science.
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Victorianism
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Late 19th century social movement highlighting a traditional and highly moral set of values that focus on sexual restraint and gender roles, low tolerance of crime, demonstrations of dignity and ettiquite, and a strict social code of class conduct.
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Modernism
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In general, this is the collection of movements that follow Victorian literature with the same rebellious spirit as Romanticism. However, where the Romantics focus on the Self within the world, Modernists focus simply on the Self in an introspective fashion (and more-often-than-not the failures associated with the self), which has resulted in Modernism being referred to as the aesthetics of failure.
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MARXISM
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historical change as a result of class struggle, and the State has the power to oppress the laboring masses and benefit the wealthy; economic factors and the class divisions they reflect play a primary role in determining social institutions and actions.
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Dialectical materialism
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“consciousness does not determine life: life determines consciousness.” The results of the spirit are based on the needs of the body, or simply matter precedes thought.
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Base & Superstructure
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economic means of society & human institutions and ideologies (religion, politics, education, art, etc)
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Bourgeoisie & Proletariat
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capitalist upper class & oppressed working class
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Lumpenproletariat
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members of the of working class so demoralized that they can focus only on themselves and their individual station, rather than that of their peers, thus they exist to take advantage of others around them (pimps, tricksters, brokers, etc…)
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Ideology
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set of beliefs underlying the customs, habits, and practices common to a given social group, which to that group seem nature and universal.
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False consciousness
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an ideology of one group that works to perpetuate the system that allows it (often by the dominant class).
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Hegemony
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the process of forming a consensus or pervasive systems of values/beliefs—a web of ideologies—that shape accepted meaning or appearance of things in a given (dominant) culture.
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READER RESPONSE CRITICISM
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an approach to understanding literature that has a common emphasis on the reader’s role in the creation of the meaning of a literary work.
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narrative gaps
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a performative activity that the reader plays by imposing assumptions from his or her worldview in the areas of the text that are not fully explicit (i.e. appearances, dialogue, or even entire scenes). This becomes explicit when our familiar archetypes of literary patterns are positioned against unfamiliar patterns.
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model reader
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each text (through the complex discourse of all of its various aspects) creates its own type of reader to bring out those qualities—a closed text elicits passivity while an open text creates a suspicious and active reader.
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PSYCHOANALYSIS
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criticism Studies dealing with the roots and effects of culturally unacceptable, thus repressed and unconscious, desires and fantasies (generally of a sexual nature).
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The conscious & unconscious mind
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For Freud, the unconscious was a depository for socially unacceptable ideas, wishes or desires, traumatic memories, and painful emotions put out of mind by the mechanism of psychological repression. The unconscious is a force that can only be recognized by its effects—it expresses itself in a neurotic symptom (such as parapraxis). Simply put, the conscious mind is rational, while the unconscious is irrational.
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Id
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One of the divisions of psych according to Freud’s later “structural theory”. The ___ contains “primitive desires” (hunger, rage, sex).
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Super-Ego
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One of the divisions to psyche according of Freud’s later “structural theory”. The ____ contains internalized norms, morality, and taboos.
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Ego
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One of the divisions to psyche according of Freud’s later “structural theory”. The ____ mediates between the id and super-ego and may include or give rise to the sense of self.
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Neurosis
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conflict of the id & super-ego/ego that manifests in unconscious physical habits
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Coping mechanisms
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methods by which the ego can deal with conflicts between the super-ego and the id.
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Denial
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fending off awareness of an unpleasant truth or of a reality that is a threat to the ego.
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Displacement
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redirection of emotion from a “dangerous” object to a “safe” one.
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Repression
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occurs when an experience is so painful (such as war trauma) that it is unconsciously forced from consciousness, while suppression is a conscious effort to do the same.
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Projection
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imposing one’s own undesirable thoughts, motivations, desires, feelings onto someone or something else.
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Intellectualization
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removing one’s self, emotionally, from a stressful event, by focusing on rational and factual components of the situation.
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Rationalization
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the construction a logical justification for a decision that was originally arrived at through a different mental process
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Compensation
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taking up one behavior because one cannot accomplish another behavior.
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Sublimation
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the channeling of impulses to socially accepted behaviors.
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Eros
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One of the life and death instincts: the life drive; or all creative, life-producing desires.
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Thanatos
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One of the life and death instincts: the death drive; or the urge inherent in all living things to return to a state of calm, or, ultimately, of non-existence.
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Misogyny
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prejudicial male derision (sometimes manifesting in hatred) of women.
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Misandry
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prejudicial female derision (sometimes manifesting in hatred) of men.
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Archetypes
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patterns repeated in human experience, which are genetically inherited.
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Abjection
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literally means “the state of being cast out,” but the way in we are using it the abject is the event where we lose something intimately important to ourselves we would still like to keep (like our innocence); that is, forced to face it is an inherently traumatic experience. Without this loss, it is impossible to experience moments of jouissance.
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Jouissance
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What James Joyce calls an epiphany. A moment of complete understanding, which allows you to see your place in the world (that is, not seeing yourself as the center of the universe).
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Nihilism
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A worldview in which, values do not exist but rather are falsely or arbitrarily invented.
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Ăśbermensch
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for Nietzsche, the ____ is the endgame for mankind, this character is able to 1) develop his/her own code of ethics and abide by them, and 2) not hide behind traditional moralities, while 3) embracing life (and morality) as a fluid existence.
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Final Man
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The ______ adopts another’s ethics, uses traditional moralities as an excuse not to take responsibility, and refuses to change or adapt.
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Apollonian and Dionysian aesthetics
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Nietzsche’s theory of the ancient dualism between two types of aesthetic experience. The analogy with the world of the Greek gods typifies the relationship between these extremes: two godsons, incompatible and yet inseparable. Both elements are present in any work of art. The issue becomes that the (Dionysian) dark side of existence makes itself apparent and forces us to confront whatever we have tried to shut out of our nice, tidy, livable world.
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Apollonian
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the dream state or the wish to create order, principium individuationis (principle of individuation), plastic (visual) arts, beauty, clarity, formed boundaries, individuality, celebration of appearance/illusion, human beings as artists (or media of art’s manifestation), self-control, perfection, exhaustion of possibilities, creation.
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Dionysian
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chaos, intoxication, celebration of nature, instinctual, intuitive, pertaining to the sensation of pleasure or pain, individuality dissolved and hence destroyed, wholeness of existence, orgiastic passion, dissolution of all boundaries, excess, humans as the work and glorification of art, destruction.
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Zeitgeist
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society consists of a collective consciousness which move in a distinct direction, dictating the actions of its members.
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Allegory
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In “A Modest Proposal”, The Irish babies are compared to animals in the text because they were only worth market value and should be slaughtered, eaten, or marked for future breeding. This is an example of ______.
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Metaphor
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In “On First Looking into Chapman’s Homer”, Keats reads Homer compares himself to an explorer . This is an example of:
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Satire
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ex: In “A Modest Proposal”, the stingy British approach to dealing with their Irish subjects is extremely exaggerated to the extent of cannabalism. This is an example of ______.
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Bildungsroman
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In “Candide”, Candide starts as an innocent man who worshiped Pangloss. He listens to him and believes everything he says. Once Candide is kicked out of the castle, he leaves and starts a series of adventures that have developed Candide’s state of wisdom and maturity. The process of maturing Candide is long and consisting of repeated clashes between needs and judgments by society. This is an example of……
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ideology
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In “Candide”, Cunegonde says she has to act like a noble woman since she is a noble woman. This is an example of…..
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Symbolism
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In “Candide”, Pangloss is representative of the folly of blind optimism and abstract speculation. This is an example of…
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Phantasmagoria
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In “Candide”, Cunegonde, Pangloss, and the baron are resurrected. This is an example of….
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Optimism
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In “Candide”, according to Pangloss’ philosophy, since God must be perfect, the world he created must be perfect as well. This is an example of…
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Romanticism
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literary examples of the ______ movement are: Candide, Songs of Innocence/Experience, Confessions, and Song of Myself.
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Victorianism
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In the time period “My last Duchess” is set in, society is more concerned with appearances than morals. This is an example of ________.
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Modernism
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literary examples of the _______ movement are: The Queen of Spades, My Last Duchess, and Notes from the Underground.
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Marxism
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Theory behind The Communist Manifesto
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Dialectal Materialism
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In “My Last Duchess”, the Duke has lots of money, power, and status so he has the ability to love and appreciate art. This is an example of….
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Base
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resources
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Superstructure
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“I don’t have any money so I don’t have the time to worry about things like philosophy.” Philosophy in this scenario is an example of….
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Bourgeoisie
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In “My Last Duchess”, the Duke is an example for a member of the ______ class.
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Proletariat
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In “Notes from the Underground”, the underground man is an member of the ______ class.
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Lumpenproletariat
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In “The Queen of Spades”, Hermann and Tomsky are both examples of a __________ since they are of lower class and take advantage of people.
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Ideology
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In “Song of Myself”, Whitman says that slavery is wrong. This doesn’t appeal to slave owners. What is this an example of?
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ideology
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When Whitman wrote “Song of Myself”, slavery was the status quo at the time. Throughout the poem, he talks about how he thinks slavery is wrong. This is an example of….
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Hegemony
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In “My Last Duchess”, The Duke’s class (aristocracy) allows him to do whatever he wants and get away with it. This is an example of….
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Narrative Gaps
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In “Ode on a Grecian Urn”, even though Keats is just looking at a vase, he comes up with a story that goes along with the pictures on it. This is an example of:
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Model Reader
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In “Song of Myself”, Whitman involves the reader by interacting with him by asking questions which in turn creates skepticism and a sense of unity. This an example of…
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Conscious Mind
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Thinking about your day is an example of the _______ _____ at work.
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Unconscious Mind
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A nightmare is an example of the _________ _____ at work.
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Ego
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“I want to do this but it’s not okay” is an example of….
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Super-Ego
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Farting in an elevator is not socially acceptable. This is an example of…
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Id
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sex, drugs, and rock ‘n roll are an example of this:
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Eros
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In the time period of Baudelaires “Flowers of Evil”, France had been leading the world in creativity. This is an example of:
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Thanatos
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In the time period of Baudelaires “Flowers of Evil, France’s complacency is an example of:
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Misogyny
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“I hate women and want to hurt them”
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Misandry
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“I hate men and want to hurt them”
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Archtypes
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Baudelaire’s reference of the 7 Deadly Sins in “To the Reader” are an example of:
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Abjection
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In “My Last Duchess”, the embissary has realized he shouldn’t someone’s daughter to a sociopath. He tries to leave but the Duke insists on walking him out. This is an example of…..
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Jouissance
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In “Song of Myself”, Whitman says masturbation was a moment of self-discovery for him. This is an example of:
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Nihilism
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An ubermensch would understand the term, ______, because he would have different, situational values from the norm
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Ubermensch
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When Whitman wrote “Song of Myself”, slavery was the status quo. Whitman stated that slavery was wrong in this poem and that he won’t follow it. He also tries to change the status quo. This is an example of….
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Final Man
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An example of a _____ ___ is Nazi soldier saying, “I was just following orders.”
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Apollonian Aesthetic
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A statue is an example of the _____ ________ because it never changes.
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Dionysian Aesthetic
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In “Song of Myself”, Whitman says that he contains multitudes within himself. This is example of the _______ _______.
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Zeitgeist
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After 9/11, America’s _______ was very patriotic.
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Neurosis
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Rationalization. “If I eat this cookie, I will run a mile” This is an example of….
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Malaise
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In “Notes from the Underground”, the underground man is an example of ______ because he isolates himself from society.
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Sublimation
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During the time period that Blake wrote “Songs of Innocence/Experience”, he saw dust in the wind and thought it was an angel. His father got mad at him for saying that since everyone was afraid of witches at the time and he told Blake that he couldn’t talk to anyone about it. So, Blake writes since that is acceptable by society. This is an example of….