World History – Unit 7 Test Review

Flashcard maker : August Dunbar
Liberal
Supports change within the existing system; reform-minded.
Conservative
Generally opposed to change and works within the existing system. This person wants to maintain the status quo.
Reactionary
Will use violence to oppose change and wants to return things to policies of the past.
Moderate
Will support or oppose change based on individual issues. Works within the existing system.
Radical
Uses violence to bring about swift and complete change in the existing system of government.
Old Regime
The social and political system of pre-revolutionary France.
Status Quo
To keep things the way they are is to maintain the…
Estates
The social classes of France prior to the revolution.
Bourgeoisie
The middle class of France made up of merchants, professionals, and intellectuals who served as the leaders of the French Revolution. Mainly lived in the urban areas.
Nobles
Made up the Second Estate
Clergy
Made up the First Estate
Third Estate
Made up of the bourgeoisie, artisans, and peasants.
Peasants
The largest and most heavily taxed group in France.
Estates-General
The representative body of pre-revolutionary France divided into three houses that met in separate locations.
National Assembly
Was formed by the Third Estate to speak for all the people of France. It wrote France’s first constitution and was replaced by more radical elements in 1792.
National Convention
Created by the radicals in 1792; governed and wrote France’s second constitution.
Directory
The government created by the Constitution of 1795 with a five member executive committee and a bicameral legislature.
Committee of Public Safety
Created to run France until a new constitution could be written. It was a ten member executive committee that carried out the Reign of Terror.
Danton, Marat, and Robespierre
Leading members of the Committee of Public Safety
Legitimacy, Compensation, and Balance of Power
The guiding principles of the Congress of Vienna
Artisans
Craftsmen and members of the third estate who were generally not wealthy and lived in urban areas.
Jacobins
Were the radical \”political club\” of France that claimed to be the voice of the common people of France; they formed the National Convention.
Louis XVIII
Was restored to the throne of France by the Congress of Vienna following the revolution and the defeat of Napoleon Bonaparte.
Emigres
French nobles who left France for Austria; they planned to return and retake control of the government at some future time.
Louis XVI
The French Monarch at the start of the revolution; he was faced with extreme economic difficulties and a crop failure. After attempting to escape France, he was arrested, tried for treason and executed.
Marie Antoinette
The wife of the French King and the daughter of Maria Theresa of Austria; a symbol of the greed of the Second Estate and the crown, she was executed.
July 14, 1789
Date of Bastille Day
Moscow
Where Napoleon invaded in 1812 to punish it for violating the Continental System which proved to be his largest military mistake.
Austria, Prussia, Russia, and England
The \”Big Four\” countries at the Congress of Vienna that set policy.
Elba
Island that Napoleon was first exiled to (off the coast of Italy).
St. Helena
Island that Napoleon was exiled to after his final defeat (in the South Atlantic)
Continental System
Napoleon’s plan to destroy the economy of Great Britain by restricting trade.
Hundred Days
The period of Napoleon’s return to France from exile prior to his defeat at Waterloo.
Coup d’etat
A seizure of the state taking control of a government by force.
Reign of Terror
The Committee of Public Safety carried out mass executions of French citizens over a 10 month period.
Tennis Court Oath
A vow of the National Assembly not to leave its building until a Constitution has been written.
Declaration of the Rights of Man and Citizen
Part of the French Constitution of 1792, gaurenteeing civil liberties to the French people.
Bastille
The castle attacked at the beginning of the French Revolution.
Plebiscite
A vote of the people to answer a question.
Consulate
The name of Napoleon’s government.
Waterloo
The location of Napoleon’s last battle when he was defeated by a combined European force in 1815.
Leipzig
Napoleon’s first major battlefield defeat in 1813 in Germany.
Congrss of Vienna
The \”peace conference\” following the Napoleonic Wars. IT used reactionary policies to return Europe to the politics of pre-revolutionary France.
Duke of Wellington
Led the European Army during the Battle of Waterloo
Alexander I
The Czar of Russia who rejected the Continental System and would represent his country at the Congress of Vienna
Prince Metternich
The reactionary minister of Austria who represented his country in Vienna and was influental in setting policy.
Horation Nelson
the British Admiral that destroyed the French fleet removing the threat of a French invasion of England.
Battle of Trafalgar
The naval battle in 1805; in the Mediterranean where the French Navy was vitually destroyed by the British.
Nationalism
The feeling of belonging to a nation of people who share a common culture and history. This feeling ignored in Viennna will lead to further revolution as people will fight to unite or to break away a country they were forced to belong to.
Liberalism
The political movement to reform government and make it more answerable to the people. This democratic movement ignored by the Congress of Vienna will cause several revolutions in the 19th century.
German Confederation
Created from the \”Old\” Holy Roman Empire, dividing Germany into 39 states under the control of Austria.

Get instant access to
all materials

Become a Member