World History Chapter 7 Critical Essay

Flashcard maker : Martha Hill
turnpike
a private toll road
enterprise
a business organization in an area such as shipping, mining, railroads, or factories
tenement
an apartment building for the working class
James Watt
Improved the steam engine; making steam a more efficient source of power
proletariat
The working class
Robert Owen
Utopian socialist who set up a model community in New Lanark, Scotland
anesthetic
drug that prevents pain during surgery
urbanization
movement of people from rural areas to cities
entrepreneurs
those who managed and assumed the financial risks of starting new businesses
Jeremy Bentham
British philosopher and economist who advocated utilitarianism; believed that laws should be judged by whether they bring more pleasure or pain
How did life change during the Industrial Revolution?
people migrated from rural areas to the cities
cotton gin
a machine that separates the seeds from raw cotton fibers
first factories
created for the textile industry
Luddites
labor organization
Abraham Darby
He used coal to smelt iron. His experiments led him to produce better-quality and less expensive iron.
Thomas Malthus
believed that diseases was a bnatural means of controling population
David Ricardo
wrote \”Iron Law of Wages: believed that wages will increase in direct proportion to the rise of prices
utilarianism
the idea that the goal of society should be \”greatest happiness for the greatest number\” of its citizens
social democarcy
gradual change from capitalism to socialism
Karl Marx
despired capitalism because he thought it created prosperity for a few and poverty for many
land enclosure
created larger farms
`slave trade contributed to the rise of industry
by providing investment capital
railroads
grew due to the development of steam power
did not have to follow the course of a river
putting-out system
cottage industry, in which raw cotton was distributed to peasant families who spun it into thread and then wove the thread into cloth in their own homes
working class people
lived in tenements
Factory Acts
child labor reform laws
Why were most factory workers women?
employers could pay women less than men
long-term result of the Industrial Revolution
a general rise in the standard of living
laissez-faire economists believed
the cure for poverty was an unrestricted free market
socialist solution to poverty and injustice
shared ownership by the people of the means of production
Utopians
established communities where all work was shared and all property was owned in common.
significance of steam power to industrialization
The development of steam power allowed new technologies to be invented where work was done faster and cheaper, this led to the rise of factories. More workers were needed to run the new inventions. Steam power also increased the railroiads ability to transport goods.
how did the agricultural revolution bring about the Industrial Revolution?
Farming methods were improved, new technology like the seed drill made planting easier. Farmers were able to produce more food with less workers over a lager piece of land. This lead to farm workers moving to cities to locate work and more food was produced at cheaper prices.
What was the human cost of the Industrial Revolution?
families crowded into small tenements, children and women working in factories and mines. People lost fingers and limbs working in the factories, People were killed due to poor working conditions. People injured lost their jobs. Families not compensated for the loss of a member due working conditions

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