world history chapter 2 Answers

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Into what portions may the Fertile Crescent be divided? Where are these portions located?
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1. eastern portion and western portion 2. eastern- modern day Iraq, Plain of Shiner,Tigris/Euphrates river valley western- Mediterranean coast
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Which ancient cultures occupied the Fertile crescent?
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Sumerian, Akkadian, Babylonian, Hittite, Phoenician, Hebrew, Assyrian, Chaldean, Median, Persian
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Name two important rivers located in the Eastern portion of the Fertile Crescent?
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Tigris and Euphrates
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What is the Greek name for the land “between the rivers” in the Fertile Crescent? What is the Biblical name for this area?
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1. Mesopotamia 2. Plain of Shinar
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Who was the probable ancestor of the Sumerians?
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Ham
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Define Fertile Crescent
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a narrow strip of land in western ancient Asia named for its fruitfulness and for the likeness of its shape to a crescent moon, includes portions of the modern nations of Israel, Jordan, Lebanon, Syria, Turkey, and Iraq
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Define “Cradle of Civilization”
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the Fertile Crescent is called this because the earliest people and cultures lived there
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Define Sumer
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the site of the 1st postdiluvian civilization
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Name the three oldest Sumerian settlements?
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1. Eridu 2.Uruk 3. Ur
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What were some of the agricultural techniques and inventions developed by the Sumerians?
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Agricultural- they built dikes and dams for flood control, along with canals for irrigation; they also invented the wheel and developed a plow with a seeding attachment, which enabled them to plow and seed at the same time. they also used animal husbandry to raise crops. Inventions- wheel, cuneiform writing
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What was the Sumerian’s greatest contribution to civilization?
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the art of writing
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What were the three major stages in the development of cuneiform?
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1. Pictograms 2. Ideograms 3. Phonogram
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Who developed the worlds most ancient law code?
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Ur-Nammu
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What is culture ? Of what does culture consist?
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1. is the way of life of a group of people 2. traits of people, religion, family life, government, agriculture, economy,education, philosophy, science, weapons, warfare, arts and crafts, codes of law, literature, and social customs
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What is a civilization? what must take place before one can be developed?
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1. a specialized division of labor,a written language,a written code of laws, an organized form of civil government, and the development of the arts and sciences. 2. there must be a mastery over the food supply.
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What was the most important Sumerian industry in terms of commercial activity?
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textiles
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What were some of the Sumerian contributions to architecture? to mathematics? to astronomy?
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1.arch, dome, vault, and ziggurates 2. They developed numbers based on ten, as well as money and weight measures 3. they divided the year into lunar months, and dabbled in astrology
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Name and describe the four social classes of Sumer?
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1. nobles- the ruling princes and their families, palace administrators, and priests 2.commoners- free citizens who lived in extended patriarchal families 3. clients- administrators and craftsman, other temple workers and those who worked the estates of the nobility 4. slaves- worked in the temples and palaces and on the large estates
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Describe the earliest form of religion that the Sumerians practiced. How did the Sumerians beliefs change?
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1. monotheism- the belief in the one true God. 2. They began to personify and deify the elements and forces of nature (they became naturalists, humanists, and polytheists)
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Define cuneiform
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the Sumerians greatest contribution to history, a form of writing using pictures and symbols
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Define Sir Henry C. Rawlinson
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successfully broke the code of trilingual cuneiform inscriptions
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Define Sargon of Akkad
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history’s second great empire builder
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Define education
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the process of transmitting the cultural heritage of a people from one generation to the next
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Define Ziggurates
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huge temple towers
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Define astrology
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the false belief that the heavenly bodies influence human affairs and destinies
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Define Cultural diffusion
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the speading of culture traits and patterns
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Define “Epic of Gilgamesh”
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the worlds oldest work of literature outside the Bible

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