World History Chapter 14 and 15 Study Guide

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Jacques Cartier
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discoverd St. Lawrence River
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Christopher Columbus
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sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain lands in the Caribbean – thinks that he has made it to the East Indies Led 3 more voyages Line of Demarcation – line dividing the non-European world into two zones, one controlled by Spain and the other by Portugal 1494: Treaty of Tordesillas that lays out the laws of splitting the world between Spain and Portugal
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Atahualpa
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Leader of the Inca Refuses to convert eventually Pizarro overthrows the Inca empire and continues to conquer more of South America diseases brought by the Europeans kill many of the Inca population
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Bartolome de Las Casas
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spanish priest missionary did not agree with the Encomienda System and spoke out against it
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Vasco Nunez de Balboa
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sailed for Spain Crossed Panama, reaching the Pacific Ocean
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Moctezuma
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Aztec emperor sent gifts to deter the Spanish welcomed them upon arrival Spanish tried very hard to convert the Aztecs to Christianity but Moctezuma refuses Is imprisoned as Spanish attempt conversions
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Malinche
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she was Cortes’s translator and advisor young indian woman helped Cortes form alliances
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Ferdinand Magellan
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in 1521 he claimed Philippines became key to Spain’s empire sailed for Spain first to circumnavigate the globe
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Vasco da Gama
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sailed for Portugal sailed around the Cape of Good Hope established ports on the Indian Ocean
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Hernan Cortes
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Conquered Mexico took 600 soldiers with him to conquer the Aztecs and head to Tenochtitlán
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Bartholomeu Diaz
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rounded the southern tip of Africa
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Prince Henry
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nicknamed “The Navigator” gathers groups of cartographers and scientists to go on an exploration with him so that they can better draw and define what the world looks like sponsored voyages – put a lot of his money and life into exploration
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Francisco Pizarro
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overthrew the Inca empire and conquered Peru is killed by a rival Spanish group but his legacy remains
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Alfonzo de Albuquerque
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sought to take India from Mughal Empire made alliances with princes used ships to take control of ports 1510: seized an island called Goa off of the coast of India – was set up as a commercial and military base 1511: Seized Malacca – a second very important naval port
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Malacca’s role in the Spice Trade
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The islands had great spices that started the trade routes Portugal claimed it first Dutch East India Company took it over afterwards
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Triangular trade route
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Ships brought European goods to Africa – guns, cloth, cash Slaves were transported to the Americas on the second leg, known as the Middle Passage Merchants carried good from American to Europe – sugar, cotton, furs
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English colonies
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Jamestown, Virginia: 1607 -first permanent colony -very hard lives – many died of starvation because they didn’t know how to harvest the natural resources learned how to grow and export tobacco – main livelihood Pilgrims land at Plymouth -fleeing for religious regions – feel that they are being persecuted by the Church of England -sign the Mayflower Compact – an agreement between the pilgrims that sets guide lines for running their new colony Virginia and New York -Commercial ventures organized for profit Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Maryland -Havens for persecuted religious groups Georgia and South Carolina -Gifts from English kings to loyal supporters
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Mayflower Compact
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an agreement between the pilgrims that sets guide lines for running their new colony
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French and Indian War
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War between France and England over the territories in North America France had early victories British captures Quebec – take down a lot of the power of New France 1763: Treaty of Paris ends the war – established British dominance in North America
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New France
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part of present-day Canada Jacques Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River Missionaries follow turned to the fur trade because of the harsh climate Louis XIV sent settlers to North America forbade Protestants from coming to New France increased revenue
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Inflation and capitalism in Europe
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capitalism expand – a system where businesses are owned individually trade increased
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African Slave Trade
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African states and societies were torn apart Individual Africans lost their lives and as many as 2 million during the brutal Middle Passage 11 million enslaved Africans were taken to the Americas by the time the slave trade stopped in the mid-1800s
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Spanish colonies – social classes
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Peninsulares – people born in Spain Creoles – American-born descendants of Spanish settlers Mestizos and mulattos – Native American and European; African and European descent Native American and African – non-European descent
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Effects of the Spanish conquests
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Native population declines dramatically Spanish begin bringing Africans to the Americas start of slave trade Culture starts to blend music, religion, food are all exchanged
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Malinche’s role in Cortes’ takeover
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She interpreted for him and helped him form alliances
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Mercantilism
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Goal: Build gold and silver by exporting more than importing leads to strict laws around trade tariffs increase
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Treaty of Tordesillas
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a treaty signed between Spain and Portugal in 1494 which divided the non-European world between them
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Encomienda
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The right the Spanish government granted to its American colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans
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Columbian Exchange
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The Global exchange of goods, ideas, plants and animals, and disease that began with Columbus’ exploration of the Americas
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Conquistador
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Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500s and 1600s
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Line of Demarcation
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A line Pope Alexander VI set dividing the non-European world into two zones. Spain had trading and exploration rights in any land west of the line, Portugal had the same rights east of the line
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Mestizo
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A person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and French Canadian descent
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Privateer
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A privately owned ship commissioned by a government to attack and capture enemy ships, especially merchant’s ships
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Peon
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A worker forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off debt
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Triangular Trade
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Colonial trade routes among Europe and its colonies, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves
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Creole
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A person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers
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Middle Passage
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The leg of the triangular trade route on which slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas
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Dutch East India Company
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This was formed by a group of wealthy Dutch merchants in 1602 and had an unusual amount of power
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Mulatto
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In Spain’s colonies in the Americas, a person who was of African and European descent
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Treaty of Paris
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Treaty of 1763 that ended the Seven Year’s War and resulted in British dominance of the Americas
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Mercantilism
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Policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver

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