World History Chapter 14 and 15 Study Guide

Jacques Cartier
discoverd St. Lawrence River

Christopher Columbus
sponsored by Ferdinand and Isabella of Spain
lands in the Caribbean – thinks that he has made it to the East Indies
Led 3 more voyages
Line of Demarcation – line dividing the non-European world into two zones, one controlled by Spain and the other by Portugal
1494: Treaty of Tordesillas that lays out the laws of splitting the world between Spain and Portugal

Atahualpa
Leader of the Inca
Refuses to convert
eventually Pizarro overthrows the Inca empire and continues to conquer more of South America
diseases brought by the Europeans kill many of the Inca population

Bartolome de Las Casas
spanish priest missionary
did not agree with the Encomienda System and spoke out against it

Vasco Nunez de Balboa
sailed for Spain
Crossed Panama, reaching the Pacific Ocean

Moctezuma
Aztec emperor
sent gifts to deter the Spanish
welcomed them upon arrival
Spanish tried very hard to convert the Aztecs to Christianity but Moctezuma refuses
Is imprisoned as Spanish attempt conversions

Malinche
she was Cortes’s translator and advisor
young indian woman
helped Cortes form alliances

Ferdinand Magellan
in 1521 he claimed Philippines
became key to Spain’s empire
sailed for Spain
first to circumnavigate the globe

Vasco da Gama
sailed for Portugal
sailed around the Cape of Good Hope
established ports on the Indian Ocean

Hernan Cortes
Conquered Mexico
took 600 soldiers with him to conquer the Aztecs and head to Tenochtitlán

Bartholomeu Diaz
rounded the southern tip of Africa

Prince Henry
nicknamed “The Navigator”
gathers groups of cartographers and scientists to go on an exploration with him so that they can better draw and define what the world looks like
sponsored voyages – put a lot of his money and life into exploration

Francisco Pizarro
overthrew the Inca empire and conquered Peru
is killed by a rival Spanish group but his legacy remains

Alfonzo de Albuquerque
sought to take India from Mughal Empire
made alliances with princes
used ships to take control of ports
1510: seized an island called Goa off of the coast of India – was set up as a commercial and military base
1511: Seized Malacca – a second very important naval port

Malacca’s role in the Spice Trade
The islands had great spices that started the trade routes
Portugal claimed it first
Dutch East India Company took it over afterwards

Triangular trade route
Ships brought European goods to Africa – guns, cloth, cash
Slaves were transported to the Americas on the second leg, known as the Middle Passage
Merchants carried good from American to Europe – sugar, cotton, furs

English colonies
Jamestown, Virginia: 1607
-first permanent colony
-very hard lives – many died of starvation because they didn’t know how to harvest the natural resources
learned how to grow and export tobacco – main livelihood
Pilgrims land at Plymouth
-fleeing for religious regions – feel that they are being persecuted by the Church of England
-sign the Mayflower Compact – an agreement between the pilgrims that sets guide lines for running their new colony
Virginia and New York
-Commercial ventures organized for profit
Massachusetts, Pennsylvania and Maryland
-Havens for persecuted religious groups
Georgia and South Carolina
-Gifts from English kings to loyal supporters

Mayflower Compact
an agreement between the pilgrims that sets guide lines for running their new colony

French and Indian War
War between France and England over the territories in North America
France had early victories
British captures Quebec – take down a lot of the power of New France
1763: Treaty of Paris ends the war – established British dominance in North America

New France
part of present-day Canada
Jacques Cartier discovers St. Lawrence River
Missionaries follow
turned to the fur trade because of the harsh climate
Louis XIV
sent settlers to North America
forbade Protestants from coming to New France
increased revenue

Inflation and capitalism in Europe
capitalism expand – a system where businesses are owned individually
trade increased

African Slave Trade
African states and societies were torn apart
Individual Africans lost their lives and as many as 2 million during the brutal Middle Passage
11 million enslaved Africans were taken to the Americas by the time the slave trade stopped in the mid-1800s

Spanish colonies – social classes
Peninsulares – people born in Spain
Creoles – American-born descendants of Spanish settlers
Mestizos and mulattos – Native American and European; African and European descent
Native American and African – non-European descent

Effects of the Spanish conquests
Native population declines dramatically
Spanish begin bringing Africans to the Americas
start of slave trade
Culture starts to blend
music, religion, food are all exchanged

Malinche’s role in Cortes’ takeover
She interpreted for him and helped him form alliances

Mercantilism
Goal: Build gold and silver by exporting more than importing
leads to strict laws around trade
tariffs increase

Treaty of Tordesillas
a treaty signed between Spain and Portugal in 1494 which divided the non-European world between them

Encomienda
The right the Spanish government granted to its American colonists to demand labor or tribute from Native Americans

Columbian Exchange
The Global exchange of goods, ideas, plants and animals, and disease that began with Columbus’ exploration of the Americas

Conquistador
Spanish explorers who claimed lands in the Americas for Spain in the 1500s and 1600s

Line of Demarcation
A line Pope Alexander VI set dividing the non-European world into two zones. Spain had trading and exploration rights in any land west of the line, Portugal had the same rights east of the line

Mestizo
A person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was of Native American and French Canadian descent

Privateer
A privately owned ship commissioned by a government to attack and capture enemy ships, especially merchant’s ships

Peon
A worker forced to labor for a landlord in order to pay off debt

Triangular Trade
Colonial trade routes among Europe and its colonies, the West Indies, and Africa in which goods were exchanged for slaves

Creole
A person in Spain’s colonies in the Americas who was an American-born descendent of Spanish settlers

Middle Passage
The leg of the triangular trade route on which slaves were transported from Africa to the Americas

Dutch East India Company
This was formed by a group of wealthy Dutch merchants in 1602 and had an unusual amount of power

Mulatto
In Spain’s colonies in the Americas, a person who was of African and European descent

Treaty of Paris
Treaty of 1763 that ended the Seven Year’s War and resulted in British dominance of the Americas

Mercantilism
Policy by which a nation sought to export more than it imported in order to build its supply of gold and silver