world history chapter 12 glencoe

Flashcard maker : Joseph Fraser
renaissance
The great period of rebirth in art, literature, and learning in the 14th-16th centuries, which marked the transition into the modern periods of European history
Italian Renaissance
A period of intense artistic and intellectual activity, said to be a ‘rebirth’ of Greco-Roman culture. From roughly the mid-fourteenth to mid-fifteenth century followed by this movement spreading into the Northern Europe during 1400-1600
Renaissance Italy
1. urban society emerged
2.secular point of view emerged
3. affected politics and art.
4.new view of humans as people
5. Renaissance men…ie Leonardo Da Vinci
Urban Society
A system in which cities are the center of political, economic, and social life.
secular
worldly; not pertaining to church matters or religion; temporal
Leonardo da vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Italy failed to create a centralized monarchy.
There was no single strong ruler.
There were strong ……….
city states such as
1.Milan
2. Florence
3. Venice
Milan
was a city-state in northern and central Italy to remain independent and that was led by the Sforza
Sforza
conquered Milan and became its new duke, leader of mercenaries
Venice
rich city-state in northern Italy; had an elected leader called a doge but was actually run by a small group of wealthy merchant-aristocrats; had a tremendously profitable trade empire and was an international power
Linked Europe with Asia
Doge
formerly the chief magistrate in the republics of Venice and Genoa
Florence
Italy’s leading cultural center during Renaissance; important for trade and commerce;dominated by Medici’s
Cosimo de Medici
1.A ruler who took control of Florence in 1434 and is part of the wealthy Medici family.
2. the wealthiest Florentine and an astute statesman, de’ Medici brought stability back to Florence in 1434 when he ascended to power; controlled the city internally from behind the scenes, skillfully manipulating the constitution and influencing elections; through his informal, cordial relations with the electoral committee, Cosimo was able to keep councilors loyal to him in the Signoria (the governing body of Florence, composed of 8 councilors); as head of the Office of Public Debt, Cosimo was able to favor congenial factions; He was the grandfather of Lorenzo the Magnificent
Lorenzo de Medici
1.A leader of Florence, he used his power and wealth to become a great patron of the arts and helping the growth of the Renaissance in Italy
2.grandson of Cosmo de Medici, helped in the development of the Florentine Renaissance culture
mercenaries
soldiers who sold their services to the highest bidder
Three social classes during the renaissance
1. clergy
2.nobility
3. peasants and towns people
nobility
a privileged class holding hereditary titles
1500’s nobles dominated society again.
Book of courtier
written by Italian Baldassare Castiglione, became handbook for nobles, 3 characteristics of nobles: born not made, should have character grace and talent, should develop 2 basic skills: military, classic education and arts, should not hide achievements but show them with graceof th
Peasants
1.people who worked the land or served the nobles
2. 85-90%of the population were peasants
3.
townspeople
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
Family bonds
1. great security
2. parents arrange marriages
3.dowry
4.patriarchal- father is the head of the family.
5. children were not adults.
Humanists
People who specialize in studying the grammar, history, poetry, and rhetoric. Taught life should be meaningful. Displayed a critical approach to learning ie Dante& Chaucer
Raphael
Italian painter whose many paintings exemplify the ideals of the High Renaissance (1483-1520) ie Madonnas
Dowry
money or property brought by a woman to her husband at marriage
Michaelangelo
One of the great Italian artists. He was known as a master. He not only painted portraits, but also designed buildings, wrote poetry, and painted murals on the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel in the Vatican.
Humanism
a renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical texts and focused on human potential and achievements
Petrarch
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization., Father of Humanism
Vernacular
the everyday speech of the people (as distinguished from literary language)
Martin Luther
German theologian who led the Reformation, 95 Thesis, posted in 1517, led to religious reform in Germany, denied papal power and absolutist rule. Claimed there were only 2 sacraments: baptism and communion., German theologian who led the Reformation
Christian Humanism
a movement that developed in northern Europe during the renaissance combining classical learning with the goal of reforming the catholic church
Philosophy of Christ
at the heart of Erasmus work was this message \”Philosophy of Christ\” he believed that the life of Jesus and especially his teachings in the Sermon on the Mount should be models for Christian piety and morality
Lutheranism
The religious doctrine that Martin Luther developed; it differed from Catholicism in the doctrine of salvation, which Luther believed could be achieved by faith alone, not by good works; Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith
Peace of Augsburg
Ended the religious wars. The division of Christianity was formally acknowledged, with Lutheranism granted equal legal standing with Catholicism.

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